Temporal progression trends of cypress mortality at permanent plots in a National forest reserve of Austrocedrus chilensis (Patagonia, Argentina)

Verónica Andrea El Mujtar, Ernesto Andenmatten, Marcelo Perdomo, Federico Letourneau, Oscar Grau, Leonardo Gallo

Abstract


Longevity is a characteristic of forest trees that influences their responses to challenges by biotic and abiotic stresses and the temporal development of symptoms. Monitoring programs have been extensively used to detect the impact of climatic change, air pollution and outbreaks of pathogens on forest health, growth and dynamics. In Argentina, forests of Patagonian cypress are affected since mid twenty century by a mortality process called “mal del ciprés” (cypress mortality), but information about their temporal progression is scarce. In the present work we used a database from a program of dasometric permanent plots to analyse the temporal development of cypress mortality on plot and tree level, and determine qualitatively the spatial distribution of affected trees. Particular pulses of appearance of affected trees shared by all plots, rapid or slow progress of mortality at tree level and a homogeneous distribution of affected trees without a clear pattern of expansion from a central point were determined. The results indicate that the episodic appearance of affected trees can be related with warm and dry climatic periods and suggest that the individuals affected by cypress mortality share some special characteristics such as genetic background, developmental conditions or physiological mechanisms for drought responses.

Keywords


symptoms development, monitoring, spatial distribution, drought, mortality pattern

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alexander S.A., Palmer C.J., 1999. Forest health monitoring in the United States: first four years. Environ Monit Assess 55, 267-277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005905310299

Amoroso M., 2009. Stand development patterns as a consequence of the decline in Austrocedrus chilensis forests. PhD thesis. The University of British Columbia, Vancouver.

Badea O., Tanase M., Georgeta J., Anisoara L., Peiov A., Uhriloa H., Pajtik J., Wawrzoniak J., Shparyk Y., 2004. Forest health status in the Carpathian Mountains over the period 1997-2001. Environ Pollut 130, 93-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2003.10.024 PMid:15046844

Brown L.B., Allen-Díaz B., 2009. Forest stand dynamics and sudden oak death: Mortality in mixed-evergreen forests dominated by coast live oak. For Ecol Manage 257, 1271-1280.

Bussotti F., Ferretti M., 2009. Visible injury, crown condition and growth responses of selected Italian forests in relation to ozone exposure. Environ Pollut 157, 1427-1437. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2008.09.034 PMid:18977569

Calí S.G., 1996. Austrocedrus chilensis: estudio de los anillos de crecimiento y su relación con la dinámica del «Mal del ciprés» en el Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Argentina. Degree thesis. Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Bariloche, Argentina.

De Vries M., Vel E., Reinds G.J., Deelstra H., Klap J.M., Leeters E.E.J.M., Hendriks C.M.A., Kerkvoorden M., Landmann G., Herkendell J., Haussmann T., Erisman J.W., 2003. Intensive monitoring of forest ecosystems in Europe. 1. Objectives, setup and evaluation strategy. For Ecol Manage 174, 77-95.

Dobbertin M., Baltensweiler A., Rigling D., 2001. Tree mortality in an unmanaged mountain pine (Pinus mugo var. uncinata) stand in the Swiss National Park impacted by root rot fungi. For Ecol Manage 145, 79-89.

El Mujtar V., Andenmatten E., 2007a. Análisis del «Mal del Ciprés» mediante un «Modelo de Enfermedad»: Vacíos de Información y Perspectivas. Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía, La Plata, 106(2), 119-133.

El Mujtar V., Andenmatten E., 2007b. «Mal del ciprés»: búsqueda de la causa más probable de daño mediante un análisis deductivo y comparativo. Bosque 28(1), 3-9.

Filip G.M., Rosso P.H., 1999. Cypress mortality (mal del ciprés) in the Patagonian Andes: comparisons with similar forest diseases and declines in North America. Eur J For Path 29, 89-96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0329.1999.00133.x

Havrylenko M., Rosso P.H.A., Fontenla S.B., 1989. Austrocedrus chilensis: contribución al estudio de su mortalidad en Argentina. Bosque 10(1), 29-36.

Holdenrieder O., Pautasso M., Weisberg P.J., Lonsdale D., 2004. Tree diseases and landscape processes: the challenge of landscape pathology. Trends Ecol Evol 19(8), 446-452. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2004.06.003 PMid:16701303

Jeger M.J., 2004. Analysis of disease progress as a basis for evaluating disease management practices. Annu Rev Phytopathol 42, 61-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.phyto.42.040803.140427 PMid:15283660

Klos R.J., Wang G.G., Bauerle W.L., Rieck J.R., 2009. Drought impact on forest growth and mortality in the southeast USA: an analysis using Forest Health and Monitoring data. Ecol Appl 19(3), 699-708. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/08-0330.1 PMid:19425432

La Manna L., Rajchenberg M., 2004a. The decline of Austrocedrus chilensis forests in Patagonia, Argentina: soil features as predisponsing factors. For Ecol Manage 190, 345-357.

La Manna L., And Rajchenberg M., 2004b. Soil proprieties and Austrocedrus chilensis forest decline in Central Patagonia, Argentina. Plant Soil 263, 29-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:PLSO.0000047723.86797.13

La Manna L., Carabelli F., Gómez M., Matteucci S., 2008. Disposición espacial de parches de Austrocedrus chilensis con síntomas de defoliación y mortalidad en el Valle 16 de Octubre (Chubut, Argentina). Bosque 29(1), 23-32.

Le Quesne C., Stahle D.W., Cleaveland M.K., Therrell M.D., Aravena J.C., Barichivich J., 2006. Ancient Austrocedrus Tree-Ring Chronologies Used to Reconstruct Central Chile Precipitation Variability from AD 1200 to 2000. J Clim. 19, 5731-5744. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3935.1

Mclaughlin D., 1998. A decade of forest tree monitoring in Canada: evidence of air pollution effects. Environmental Reviews 6(3-4), 151-171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/a98-008

Milgroom M.G., Peever T.L., 2003. Population biology of plant pathogens. The synthesis of plant disease epidemiology and population genetics. Plant Dis 87(6), 608-617. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS.2003.87.6.608

Mundo I.A., El Mujtar V.A., Perdomo M.H., Gallo L.A., Villalba R., Barrera Md., 2010. Austrocedrus chilensis growth decline in relation to drought events in Northern Patagonia, Argentina. Trees. doi: 10.1007/s00468-010-0427-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00468-010-0427-8

Petriccione B., Pompei E., 2002. The CONECOFOR Programme: general presentation, aims and co-ordination. J Limnol 61(Suppl 1), 3-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/jlimnol.2002.s1.3

Rosso P.H., Baccalá N., Havrylenko M., Fontenla S., 1994. Spatial pattern of Austrocedrus chilensis wilting and the scope of autocorrelation analysis in natural forests. For Ecol Manage 67, 273-279.

Rosso P.H.A., Havrylenko M., Fontenla S.B., 1989. Austrocedrus chilensis: asociación espacial entre individuos sanos y afectados por la mortalidad. Bosque 10(2), 85-88.

Solberg S., 2004. Summer drought: a driver for crown condition and mortality of Norway spruce in Norway. For Path 34, 93-104.

Suárez M.L., Kitzberger T., 2008. Recruitment patterns following a severe drought: long-term compositional shifts in Patagonian forests. Can J For Res 38, 3002-3010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/X08-149

Suárez M.L., Ghermandi L., Kitzberger T., 2004. Factors predisposing episodic drought-induce tree mortality in Nothofagus – site, climatic sensitivity and growth trends. J Ecol 92,954-966. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2004.00941.x

Villalba R., Veblen T., 1997. Regional patterns of tree population age structures in Northern Patagonia: climatic and disturbance influences. J Ecol 85(2), 113-124. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2960643

Villalba R., Veblen T.T., 1998. Influences of largescale climatic variability on episodic tree mortality in Northern Patagonia. Ecology 9(8), 2624-2640. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(1998)079[2624:IOLSCV]2.0.CO;2




DOI: 10.5424/fs/2011202-8916

Webpage: www.inia.es/Forestsystems