Potential and supply costs of wood chips from forests in Soria, Spain

Perttu Anttila, Antti Asikainen, Juha Laitila, Miguel Broto, Ignacio Campanero, Iñigo Lizarralde, Francisco Rodríguez


Soria is a forested province in Northern Spain. The utilization level of the forests in Soria is low at present, but it is predicted to rise in the future. Because of the high altitude, heating is also needed. These form a good basis for increasing the use of wood chips in energy production. In this study, a procedure to estimate the potential of wood chip from forests and their procurement costs was adapted to Spanish conditions. The harvesting potential was estimated to be between 140,000 m3 and 280,000 m3 in 2010, and to double by 2030. Cost-supply curves were provided to aid in the planning of heating plant investments. Compared to European cost levels, the procurement costs in Soria are not high.


GIS; forest biomass; forest residues; forest chips; transport costs; availability; fuel wood

Full Text:



Alakangas E., Heikkinen A., Lensu T., Vesterinen P., 2007. Biomass fuel trade in Europe - Summary Report VTT-R-03508-07. EUBIONET II project, Jyväskylä. 55 pp. + app. 2 pp. Available in http://www.aebiom.org/IMG/pdf/WP1_EUBIONET_Final_12042007.pdf.

Anonymous, 2006. EU energy and transport in figures — Statistical pocketbook 2006. ISBN 92-79-03598-3 Available in http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/energy_transport/figures/pocketbook/2006_en.htm.

Anonymous, 2007. Biomass prediction in Soria and Burgos. Foreco Technologies. 15 pp.

Asikainen A., 1998. Chipping terminal logistics. Scand J For Res 13, 386-391. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02827589809382998

Asikainen A., Ranta T., Laitila J., Hämäläinen J., 2001. Hakkuutähdehakkeen kustannustekijät ja suurimittakaavainen hankinta (Cost factors and large scale procurement of logging residue chips). Research Notes 131. Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu. 107 pp. [In Finnish].

Asikainen A., Liiri H., Peltola S., Karjalainen T., Laitila J., 2008. Forest energy potential in Europe (EU27). Finnish Forest Research Institute. Working Papers 69. 33 pp. Available in http://www.metla.f i/julkaisut/workingpapers/2008/mwp069-en.htm.

Brunberg T., 2004. Underlag till produktionsnormer för skotare (Productivity norm data for forwarders). Skogforsk, Redogörelse 3. 12 pp. ISSN 1103-4580. [In Swedish with English summary].

Castellano P.J., Volk T.A., Herrington L.P., 2009. Estimates of technically available woody biomass feedstock from natural forests and willow biomass crops for two locations in New York State. Biomass and Bioenergy 33, 393-406. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2008.08.001

COM, 2009. Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC20. 47 pp.

Hakkila P., 2004. Developing technology for large-scale production of forest chips. Wood Energy Technology Programme 1999-2003. Final report. National Technology Agency. Technology Programme Report 6/2004. 98 pp.

Heikkilä J., Laitila J., Tanttu V., Lindblad J., Sirén M., Asikainen A., Pasanen K., Korhonen K.T., 2005. Karsitun energiapuun korjuuvaihtoehdot ja kustannustekijät. Finnish Forest Research Institute. Working Papers 10. 56 pp. Available in http://www.metla.fi/julkaisut/workingpapers/2005/mwp010.htm. [In Finnish].

Ilavský J., Laitila J., Tahvanainen T., Tuček J., Koren M., Pápaj V., Žiaková M., Jankovský J., 2007. Factors influencing availability of biomass resources and efficiency of its procurement for energy generation. A regional study for Banská Bystrica region, Slovakia. Finnish Forest Research Institute. Working Papers 59. 57 pp. Available in http://www.metla.f i/julkaisut/workingpapers/2007/mwp059-en.htm.

JCYL, 2006. Personal communication.

Kuitto P.-J., Keskinen S., Lindroos J., Oijala T., Rajamäki J., Räsänen T., Terävä J., 1994. Puutavaran koneellinen hakkuu ja metsäkuljetus. Metsätehon tiedotus 410. 38 pp. [In Finnish].

Laitila J., 2008. Harvesting technology and the cost of fuel chips from early thinnings. Silva Fennica 42, 267-283.

Laitila J., 2006. Cost and sensitive analysis tools for forest energy procurement chains. Forestry Studies 45, 5-10.

Laitila J., Heikkilä J., Anttila P., 2010. Harvesting alternatives, accumulation and procurement cost of smalldiameter thinning wood for fuel in Central-Finland. Silva Fennica 44, 465-480.

Laitila J., Asikainen A., Nuutinen Y., 2007. Forwarding of whole trees after manual and mechanized felling bunching in pre-commercial thinnings. International Journal of Forest Engineering 18, 29-39.

Laitila J., Asikainen A., Sikanen L., Korhonen K.T., Nuutinen Y., 2004. Pienpuuhakkeen kustannustekijät ja toimituslogistiikka. Finnish Forest Research Institute. Working Papers 6. 57 pp. Available in http://www.metla.fi/julkaisut/workingpapers/2004/mwp003.htm. [In Finnish].

Möller B, Nielsen P.S., 2007. Analysing transport costs of Danish forest wood chip resources by means of continuous cost surfaces. Biomass and Bioenergy 31, 291-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2007.01.018

PBCyL, 2009. Plan Regional de Ámbito Sectorial de la Bioenergía de Castilla y León. Available in http://www.jcyl.es/web/jcyl/EconomiaEmpresa/es/Plantilla100/1248678525573/_/_/_

Parrado A., Picardo A., 2006. Propuesta de objetivos para la dinamización de los aprovechamientos de madera en Castilla y León. Internal document.

Ranta T., 2002. Logging residues from regeneration fellings for biofuel production – a GIS-based availability and supply cost analysis. Acta Universitatis 128. Lappeenranta University of Technology. 180 pp.

Ranta T., Lahtinen P., Elo J., Laitila J., 2007. The effect of CO2 emission trade on the wood fuel market in Finland. Biomass and Bioenergy 31, 535-542. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2007.01.006

Tomppo E., Katila M., Moilanen J., Mäkelä H., Peräsaari J., 1998. Kunnittaiset metsävaratiedot 1990-94. Metsätieteen aikakauskirja - Folia Forestalia 4B/1998. pp. 619-839. [In Finnish].

Van Belle J.-F., Temmerman M., Schenkel Y., 2003. Three level procurement of forest residues for power plant. Biomass and Bioenergy 24, 401-409. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0961-9534(02)00161-7

DOI: 10.5424/fs/2011202-10363

Webpage: www.inia.es/Forestsystems