Silviculture conditions and wood properties of Samanea saman and Enterolobium cyclocarpum in 19-year-old mixed plantations

M.F. Obando, R. Moya

Abstract


Aim of study: The objective of this work is to examine wood properties of a mixed plantation of Samanea saman and Enterolobium cyclocarpum, combined with native species of Costa Rica.

Area of study: Mixed plantation in dry tropical zone of Costa Rica.

Material and Methods: It was measured by total diameter, heartwood, bark thickness, several physical wood properties (green density, specific gravity, volumetric, tangential and radial shrinkage and moisture content) and wood color.

Main results: The largest of this diameter are reached when S. saman is planted with E. cyclocarpum, E. cyclocarpum and Swietenia macrophylla and Simarouba glauca. Meanwhile the largest total diameter and heartwood in E. cyclocarpum was found when this species is planted with Dalbergia retusa. Heartwood percentage, bark percentage, and some physical properties are not affected when S. saman or E. cyclocarpum are planted with other species. However, parameters of wood color were affected mixture plantation of S. saman or E. cyclocarpum with other species. The lowest difference between wood from mixed plantations and wood from trees growing in native forests is produced when S. saman is mixed with E. cyclocarpum, but this last species is mixed with Hymenaea courbaril and produced wood with the lowest difference in wood color compared to trees growing in the natural forest.

Research highlights: S. saman and E. cyclocarpum tress planted in a mixed plantation produce variation in breast diameter, physical properties, heartwood percentage and wood color.

Keywords: silvicultural condition; wood properties; tropical species; plantation species.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Alice F, Montagnini F, Montero M, 2004. Productividad en plantaciones puras y mixtas de especies forestales nativas en la Estación Biológica La Selva, Sarapiquí, Costa Rica. Agronomía Costarricense 28(2): 61-71.

Arévalo R, Londoño A, 2006. Manual para la identificación de maderas que se comercializan en el departamento del Tolima. Universidad de Tolima Colombia, Colombia. 105 pp.

ASTM, 2003a. Standard D143-94 Test Methods for Small Clear Specimens of Timber, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA-USA. 12 pp.

ASTM, 2003b. Standard D2395-02 Standard Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Wood and Wood-Based Materials, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA-USA. 11 pp.

ASTM, 2003c. Standard D2244-02 Standard Practice for Calculation of Color Tolerances and Color Differences from Instrumentally Measured Color Coordinates, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA-USA. 8 pp.

Carpio M, 2003. Maderas de Costa Rica 150 especies forestales. Editorial de la Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica. 151 pp. PMCid:166034

Cui W, Kamdem P, Rypstra T, 2004. Diffuse reflectance infrared fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT) and color changes of artificial weathered wood. Wood Fiber Sci 36: 291-301.

Echols R, 1973. Uniformity of wood density assessed from x-ray of increment cores. Wood Sci Tech 7: 34-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00353377

Flores E, Obando G, 2003. Árboles del trópico húmedo: importancia socioeconómica. Editorial Tecnológica de Costa Rica, Cartago, Costa Rica. 315 pp.

Foroughbakhch R, Alvarado MA, Hernández JL, Rocha A, Guzmán MA, 2006. Establishment, growth and biomass production of 10 tree woody species introduced for reforestation and ecological restoration in northeastern Mexico. Forest Ecol Manag 235: 194-201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2006.08.012

Gierlinger N, Jacques D, Gradner M, Wimmer R, Schwanninger M, Rozenberg P, Pâques LE, 2004. Colour of larch heartwood and relationships to extractives and brown-rot decay resistance. Trees 18: 102-108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00468-003-0290-y

Gonnet J, 1993. CIELab measurement, a precise communication in ower colour: an example with carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) cultivars. J Horticultural Sci Biotech, 68: 499-510.

Griscom HP, Ashton MS, 2010. Restoration of dry tropical forests in Central America: a review of pattern and process. Forest Ecol Manag 261: 1564-1579. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2010.08.027

Hocking D, Islam K, 2011. Trees in Bangladesh paddy fields. 2. Survival of trees planted in crop fields. Agroforestry Syst 31: 39-57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00712054

Holdridge L, 1987. Life zone ecology. Tropical Science Center San José, Costa Rica. 415 pp. PMid:3567894

ISO Standard 7724:2, 1984. Paints and Varnishes – Colorimetry – Part 2: Colour measurement, 1st ed. Ref. No. ISO 7724:2-1984(E). 28 pp.

Klumpers J, Janin G, Berker M, Lévy G, 1993. The Influences of age, extractive content and soil water on wood color in oak: the possible genetic determination of wood color. Annals For Sci 50: 403-409. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/forest:19930746

Kelty MJ, 2006. The role of species mixtures in plantation forestry. Forest Ecol Manag 233(2-3): 195-204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2006.05.011

Liu S, Loup C, Gril J, Dumonceaud O, Thibaut A, Thibaut B, 2005. Studies on European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Part 1: Variations of wood color parameters. Annals For Sci, 62: 625-632. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/forest:2005063

Mazet JF, Janin G, 1990. La qualité de l'aspect des placages de Chênes (Quercus petraea and Quercus robur): mesures de couleur et critères de d'appréciation des professionnels français et italiens. Annals For Sci 47: 255-268. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/forest:19900306

Moya R, Berrocal A, 2010. Wood colour variation in sapwood and heartwood of young trees of Tectona grandis and its relationship with plantation characteristics, site, and decay resistance. Annals For Sci 67(1):109-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/forest/2009088

Moya R, Tomazello M, 2007. Relationship between anatomical features and intra-ring wood density profiles in Gmelina arborea applying X-ray densitometry. Cerne, 13: 384-392.

Moya R, Leandro L, Murillo O, 2009. Wood characteristics of Terminalia amazonia, Vochysia guatemalensis and Hyeronima alchorneoides planted in Costa Rica. Revista Bosques 30(2):78-87.

Moya R, Mu-oz F, 2010. Physical and mechanical properties of eight species from fast-growth plantation in Costa Rica. J Trop Forest Sci 22: 317-328.

Nicolai V, 1986. The bark of trees: thermal properties, microclimate and fauna. Oecologia 69:1432-1939. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00399052

OFI/CATIE, 2003. Árboles de Centroamérica: un manual para extensionistas. Oxford Forestry Institute/Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Ense-anza. Turrialba. CR. 569 pp.

Piotto D, Víquez E, Montagnini F, Kanninen M, 2004. Pure and mixed forest plantations with native species of the dry tropics of Costa Rica: a comparison of growth and productivity. Forest Ecol Manag 190(2-3): 359-372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2003.11.005

Plomion C, Leprovost G, Stokes A, 2001. Wood Formation in Trees. Plant Physiology 127: 1513-152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.010816 PMid:11743096 PMCid:1540185

Pnevmaticos SM, Petro FJ, Flann IB, 1970. Yellow birch log attributes and sawmill productivity. Forests Prod J 20(8): 53-58.

Steele P, 1984. Factors determining lumber recovery in sawmilling. Gen. Tech. Rep. FPL-39. Madison, WI: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory. 25 pp.

Sonmez T, Keles S, Tilki F, 2007. Effect of aspect, tree age and tree diameter on bark thickness of Picea orientalis. Scandinavian J Forest 22: 193-197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02827580701314716

Tamarit JC, Fuentes M, 2003. Parámetros de humedad en 63 maderas latifoliadas mexicanas en función de su densidad básica. Revista Chapingo Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente 9(2): 155-164.

Wang S, Lin C, Chiu M, 2003. Effects of thinning and pruning on knots and lumber recovery of Taiwania (Taiwania cryptomerioides) planted in the Lu-Kuei area. J Wood Sci 49: 444-449. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10086-002-0495-5

Zhong LJ, Arnold R, Xiang DY, Jian Y, Jian C, 2009. Genetic variation in growth, wood density and bark thickness of Eucalyptus dunnii. J Forest 22: 758-764.

Zobel B, Van Buijtenen B, 1989. Wood variation: its causes and control. Springer Verlag, New York, US. 346 pp. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-74069-5




DOI: 10.5424/fs/2013221-02563

Webpage: www.inia.es/Forestsystems