Carbon and nitrogen accumulation in forest floor and surface soil under different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton.) plantations

E. Ozdemir, H. V. Oral, S. Akburak, E. Makineci, E. Yilmaz


Aim of study : To determine if plantations consisting of different geographic origins of the Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton.) could have altered C and N stocks in the forest floor and surface soils.

Area of study : Forest floor and mineral soil C and N stocks were measured in four adjacent plantations of different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Gironde, Toulon, Corsica and Spain) and adjacent primary native Sessile oak (Quercus petraea L.) at Burunsuz region in Belgrad Forest where is located in the Istanbul province in the Marmara geographical region between 41°09' -41°12' N latitude and 28°54' - 29°00' E longitude in Turkey.

Material and Methods : Plots were compared as common garden experiments without replications. 15 surface soil (0-10 cm) and 15 forest floor samples were taken from each Maritime pine origins and adjacent native Sessile oak forest. C and N contents were determined on LECO Truspec 2000 CN analyzer. The statistical significance of the results was evaluated by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA).

Research highlights : Forest floor carbon mass, nitrogen concentration and nitrogen mass of forest floor showed a significant difference among origins. Soil carbon mass and nitrogen mass did not significantly differ among investigated plots.

Keywords: carbon sequestration; C/N ratio; decomposition; exotic; tree provenance.

Full Text:



Aber JD, Magell A, Mcnulty SG, Boone RD, Nadelhoffer KJ, Downs M, Hallett R. 1995. Forest biogeochemistry and primary production altered by nitrogen saturation. Water Air Soil Poll 85: 1665-1670.

Akalp T. 2002. Determination of increment and growth in stands using the method of permanent plots (Example of Maritima pine). Proc Symposium on <<Conceptual Approaches and New Targets in Forest Management>>, Istanbul (Turkey), April 18-19. pp. 256-264.

Akburak S, Oral HV, Ozdemir E, Makineci E. 2013 Temporal variations of biomass, carbon and nitrogen of roots under different tree species. Scand J Forest Res 28: 8-16.

Alía R, Gil L, Pardos JA. 1995. Performance of 43 Pinus pinaster provenances on 5 locations in Central Spain. Silvae Genet 44: 75–81.

Alía R, Moro J, Denis JB. 1997. Performance of Pinus pinaster provenances in Spain: interpretation of the genotype by environment interaction. Can J Forest Res 27: 1548–1559.

Arrabal C, Cortijo M, Fernández de Simón B, Vallejo MCG, Cadahía E. 2005. Differentiation among five Spanish Pinus pinaster provenances based on its oleoresin terpenic composition. Biochem Syst Ecol 33: 1007-1016.

Bahrman N, Zivy M, Damerval C, Baradat Ph. 1994. Organisation of the variability of abundant proteins in seven geographical origins of Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). Theor Appl Genet 88: 407-411.

Berg B. 1986. Nutrient release from litter and humus in coniferous forest soils: a mini review. Scand J Forest Res 1: 359-369.

Binkley D, Giardina C. 1998. Why do tree species affect soils? The Warp and Woof of tree-soil interactions. Biogeochemistry 42: 89–106.

Bravo F, Bravo-Oviedo A, Diaz-Balteiro L. 2008. Carbon sequestration in Spanish Mediterranean forests under two management alternatives: a modeling approach. Eur J For Res 127: 225-234.

Brüggemann N, Rosenkranz P, Papen H, Pilegaard K, Butterbach-Bahl K. 2005. Pure stands of temperate forest tree species modify soil respiration and N turnover. Biogeosciences Discussions 2: 303–331.

Castells E, Penuelas J, Valentine DW. 2004. Are phenolic compounds released from the Mediterranean shrub Cistus albidus responsible for changes in N cycling in siliceous and calcareous soils? New Phytol 162: 187–195.

Castro-Díez P, Fierro-Brunnenmeister N, González-Muñoz N, Gallardo A. 2012. Effects of exotic and native tree leaf litter on soil properties of two contrasting sites in the Iberian Peninsula. Plant Soil 350: 179–191.

Compton JE, Richard D, Motzkiná BG, Foster DR. 1998. Soil carbon and nitrogen in a pine-oak sand plain in central Massachusetts: Role of vegetation and land-use history. Oecologia 116: 536-542.

Correia I, Almeida HM, Aguiar A, Alía R, David TS, Pereira JS. 2008. Variations in growth, survival and carbon isotope composition (δ13C) among Pinus pinaster populations of different geographic origins. Tree Physiol 28: 1545–1552. PMid:18708336

Del Río M, Barbeito I, Bravo-Oviedo A, Calama R, Cañellas I, Herrero, C, Bravo F. 2008. Carbon sequestration in Mediterranean pine forests. Manag For Ecosyst: The Challenge of Climate Change 17: 221-245.

Edmonds RL. 1980. Litter decomposition and nutrient release in Douglas-fir, red alder, western hemlock and Pacific silver fir ecosystems in western Washington. Can J Forest Res 10: 327-337.

Fernandes PM, Rigolot E. 2007. The fire ecology and management of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). Forest Ecol Manag 241: 1–13.

Fernández-Núñez E, Rigueiro-Rodríguez A, Mosquera-Losada MR. 2010. Carbon allocation dynamics one decade after afforestation with Pinus radiata D. Don and Betula alba L. under two stand densities in NW Spain. Ecol Eng 36: 876–890.

Finzi AC, van Breemen N, Canham CD. 1998. Canopy tree-soil interactions within temperate forests: species effects on soil carbon and nitrogen. Ecol Appl 8: 440–446.

Follstad Shah JJ, Harner MJ, Tibbets TM. 2010. Elaeagnus angustifolia elevates soil inorganic nitrogen pools in riparian ecosystems. Ecosystems 13: 46–61.

Gorte WR. 2009. Carbon Sequestration in Forests. CRS Report for Congress, USA. PMid:20148232

Groffman PM, Driscoll CT, Fahey T, Hardy JP, Fitzhugh RD, Tierney GL. 2001. Effects of mild winter freezing on soil nitrogen and carbon dynamics in a northern hardwood forest. Biogeochemistry 56: 191–213.

IBM SPSS STATISTIC. 2010. IBM SPSS Statistics 19 Core System User's Guide. SPSS Inc. 1989, 2010.

Jiménez E, Vega JA, Fernández C, Fonturbel T. 2011. Is pre-commercial thinning compatible with carbon sequestration? A case study in a maritime pine stand in northwestern Spain. Forestry 84: 149-157.

Joseâ Moro M, Domingo F. 2000. Litter decomposition in four woody species in a Mediterranean climate: Weight Loss, N and P dynamics. Ann Bot-London 86: 1065-1071.

Kantarci; MD, 1980. Belgrad Ormani; toprak tipleri ve orman yetisme ortami; birimlerinin haritalanmasi; üzerine arastirmalar. I.Ü. Yayin No: 2636, Orman Fakültesi Yayin No: 275, (XVIII+352), Matbaa Teknisyenleri Basimevi, Istanbul, Turkey.

Kantarci; MD. 2000. Toprak Ilmi. ISBN 975-404-588-7, Istanbul, Turkey. 420 pp. PMCid:PMC2771162

Kim C, Jeong J, Cho HS, Son Y. 2010. Carbon and nitrogen status of litterfall, litter decomposition and soil in even-aged larch, red pine and rigitaeda pine plantations. J Plant Res 123: 403–409. PMid:20195884

Klemmedson JO. 1992. Decomposition and nutrient release from mixtures of Gambel oak and Ponderosa pine leaf litter. Forest Ecol Manag 47: 349-361.

Kraus TEC, Zasoski RJ, Dahlgren RA, Horwath WR, Preston CM. 2004. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics in a forest soil amended with purified tannins from different plant species. Soil Biol Biochem 36: 309–321.

Kurz C, Coûteaux MM, Thiéry JM. 2000. Residence time and decomposition rate of Pinus pinaster needles in a forest floor from direct field measurements under a Mediterranean climate. Soil Biol Biochem 32: 1197–1206.

Lal R. 2005. Forest soils and carbon sequestration. Forest Ecol Manag 220: 242-258.

Lawrence GB, Lovett GM, Baevsky YH. 2000. Atmospheric deposition and watershed nitrogen export along an elevational gradient in the Catskill Mountains, New York. Biogeochemistry 50: 21–43.

Loustau D, Crepeau S, Guye MG, Sartore M, Saur E. 1995. Growth and water relations of three geographically separate origins of Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) under saline conditions. Tree Physiol 15: 569-576. PMid:14965914

Lovett GM, Weathers KC, Arthur MA. 2002. Control of nitrogen loss from forested watersheds by soil carbon: nitrogen ratio and tree species composition. Ecosystems 5: 712–718.

Martins P, Sampedro L, Moreira X, Zas R. 2009. Nutritional status and genetic variation in the response to nutrient availability in Pinus pinaster. A multisite field study in Northwest Spain. Forest Ecol Manag 258: 1429–1436.

Matos ES, Freese D, Âlàzak A, Bachmann U, Veste M, Hüttl RF. 2010. Organic-carbon and nitrogen stocks and organic-carbon fractions in soil under mixed pine and oak forest stands of different ages in NE Germany. J Plant Nutr 173: 654-661.

Northup RR, Yu Z, Dahlgren RA, Vogt KA. 1995. Polyphenol control of nitrogen release from pine litter. Nature 377: 227–229.

Penne C, Ahrends B, Deurer M, Böttcher J. 2010. The impact of the canopy structure on the spatial variability in forest floor carbon stocks. Geoderma 158: 282-297.

Roig S, del Río M, Cañellas I, Montero G. 2005. Litter fall in Mediterranean Pinus pinaster Ait. stands under different thinning regimes. Forest Ecol Manag 206: 179-190.

Rozas V, Zas R, García-González I. 2011. Contrasting effects of water availability on Pinus pinaster radial growth near the transition between the Atlantic and Mediterranean biogeographical regions in NW Spain. Eur J For Res 130: 959–970.

Sever H, Makineci E. 2009. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen accumulation on coal mine spoils reclaimed with maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) in Agacli–Istanbul. Environ Monit Assess 155: 273–280. PMid:18604588

Sevgi O, Makineci E, Karaöz Ö, 2011. The forest floor and mineral soil carbon pools of six different forest tree species. Ekoloji 81, 8-14.

Soudzilovskaia NA, Onipchenko VG. 2005. Experimental investigation of fertilization and irrigation effects on an alpine heath, northwestern Caucasus, Russia. Arct Antarct Alp Res 37(4) : 602–610.[0602:EIOFAI]2.0.CO;2

Steltzer H, Bowman WD. 2005. Litter N retention over winter for a low and a high phenolic species in the alpine tundra. Plant Soil 275: 361–370.

Tolunay D. 2009. Carbon concentrations of tree components, forest floor and understorey in young Pinus sylvestris stands in North-Western Turkey. Scand J Forest Res 24(5) : 394 – 402.

Vesterdal L, Schmidt IK, Callesen I, Nilsson LO, Gundersen P. 2008. Carbon and nitrogen in forest floor and mineral soil under six common European tree species. Forest Ecol Manag 255: 35-48.

Wang Q, Wang S, Zhang J. 2009. Assessing the effects of vegetation types on carbon storage fifteen years after reforestation on a Chinese fir site. Forest Ecol Manag 258: 1437–1441.

Yelenik SG, Stock WD, Richardson DM. 2007. Functional group identity does not predict invader impacts: differential effects of nitrogen-fixing exotic plants on ecosystem function. Biol Invasions 9: 117–125.

DOI: 10.5424/fs/2013222-03441