Short Communication. Factors influencing in vitro seeds germination and correlation of antioxidant activity with tissue development in Cedrus deodara

N. Ahmad, H. Fazal, B. Haider Abbasi, M. Ali


Aim of study: The main objective of this study is to introduce a reliable system for in vitro seed germination. Because Cedrus deodara stands are gradually decreasing in different regions of the world due to overexploitation, natural disasters and lower seed viability.

Area of study: Swat is situated at the northwestern corner of Pakistan; with total area of 5337 square km. Total cultivated land is 95281 hectares in 2007, while the area under forest cover is 135427 hectares.

Material and Methods: We used MS-medium with or without PGRs for overall in vitro seed germination. To enhance germination frequency, we applied different photoperiods (16hrs-Dark/8hrs-Light and 16hrs-Light/8hrs-Dark) and sterilization reagents (mercuric chloride and ethanol). Synthetic free radical of DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) was applied for the determination of antioxidant activity

Main results: Maximum shoots length (3.6 cm) and root length (2.6 cm) were recorded on MS-medium augmented with BA (1.0 mg L-1) and (GA3) 0.5 mg L-1) under light incubation (16hrs-Light/8hrs-Dark) after 2-3 weeks of inoculation. Without PGRs, maximum root length (4.0 cm, with shoots of 3.2 cm) was observed in dark incubation (16hrs-Dark/8hrs-Light), whereas light incubation produced maximum shoot length (3.5 cm) and minimum root length (1.5 cm). Lower concentration of HgCl2 (0.1%) showed a lower inhibitory effect on shoot and root length (2.4 cm and 2.5 cm) as compared to higher concentrations. The antioxidant potential was also investigated in different Cedrus organs and tissues.

Research highlights: These results suggested that this simple protocol is useful for Cedrus deodara conservation and plantlets production for commercial purposes.

Key Words: Cedrus deodara; Seed germination; Callus; 6-Benzyladenine; Antioxidant.

Full Text:



Ahmad N, Fazal H, Abbasi BH, 2011. In vitro Larvicidal potential and Antioxidative enzymes activities in Ginkgo biloba, Stevia rebaudiana and Parthenium hysterophorous. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine 4: 169-175.

Ahmad N, Abbasi BH, Fazal H, Rahman UR, 2013a. Piper nigrum L.; Micropropagation, Antioxidative enzyme activities and Chromatographic fingerprint Analysis for Quality Control. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 169: 2004-2015. PMid:23354497

Ahmad N, Abbasi BH, Fazal H, 2013b. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and its association with plant development in Silybum marianum L. Industrial Crops and Products 49: 164-168.

Allen H, 1995. Personal communication. Sandwich, MA, FW Schumacher Co, Inc.

Bhattacharya J, Khuspe SS, 2001. In vitro and in vivo germination of papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds. Scientia Horticultureae 91: 39-49.

Chaudhary A, Sharma P, Nadda G,Tewary DK, Singh B, 2011. Chemical composition and larvicidal activities of the Himalayan cedar, Cedrus deodara essential oil and its fractions against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. Journal of Insect Science 11: 157. PMid:22239128 PMCid:PMC3281365

Erkuloglu OS, Kayin, 1995. Goknar ve sedir tohumlarini uzun sure saklama olanaklari uzerine arastirmalar. Ic Anadolu Ormancilik Arastirma Enstitusu Dergisi. Possibilities for long-term storage of beech, fir and cedar seeds, 77. pp. 87.

Khan MA, Abbasi BH, Ahmed N, Ali H, 2013. Effects of light regimes on in vitro seed germination and silymarin content in Silybum marianum. Industrial Crops and Products 46: 105-110.

Maina SM, Emongor Q, Sharma KK, Gichuki ST, Gathaara M, De Villiers SM, 2010. Surface sterilant effect on the regeneration efficiency from cotyledon explants of groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) varieties adapted to eastern and Southern Africa. African Journal of Biotechnology 9: 2866-2871.

Murashige T, Skoog F, 1962. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiology Plantarum 15: 473-497.

Nikolic R, Mitic N, Miletic R, Neskovic M, 2006. Effects of cytokinins on in-vitro seed germination and early seedling morphogenesis in Lotus corniculatus L. Plant Growth Regulation 25: 187-194.

Rudolf PO, 1974. Cedrus, cedar. In: Schopmeyer CS, tech. coord. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handbk. 450. Washington DC, USDA Forest Service: 291B294.

Saxena A, Saxena AK, Singh J, Bhushan S, 2010. Natural antioxidants synergistically enhance the anticancer potential of AP9-cd, a novel lignan composition from Cedrus deodara in human leukemia HL-60 cells. Chemico- Biological Interactions 188: 580-590. PMid:20932957

Tiwari AK, Srinivas PV, Kumar SP, Rao JM, 2001. Free radical scavenging active components from Cedrus deodara. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 49: 4642-4645. PMid:11600001

DOI: 10.5424/fs/2013223-04226