Phenolic acids as biochemical parameters to indicate stress in orchards of Pinus pinaster

M. Alonso, S. Bara, J. A. Vega


The content of free and combined phenolic acids (gallic, protocatechuic, p-hidroxybenzoic, vanillic, siringic and p-cumaric) in seedlings of Pinus pinaster of one year old exposed to different types of stress (excess of humidity, mechanic damage, salinity, drought, SO2 contamination, heat and cold), is analyzed through Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). From the statistic analysis one can deduce that the influence of the exposure to different types of stress is significant in relation to the content of the different phenolic acids in needles. The content of free protocatechuic acid falls after three months of exposure to any treatments of strees but salinity. After one a half year, one can observe an increase in the content of combined gallic acid in ester form for all treatments previously mentioned. The contamination of SO2 induces significant increases of free gallic, vanillic, siringic y p-cumaric acids, and combined siringic and p-cumaric acdis in branches. It can also be observed statistic differences in roots, but less significant.


Stress; Pinus pinaster; phenolic acids; protocatechuic acid; gallic acid