Analysis of Individual Tree Competition on Diameter Growth of Silver Birch in Estonia

Kobra Maleki, Andres Kiviste, Henn Korjus

Abstract


Aim of study: The present study evaluates a set of competition indices including spatially explicit indices combined with different competitor selection approaches and non-spatially explicit competition indices. The aim was to quantify and describe the neighbouring effects on the tree diameter growth of silver birch trees.

Area of study: Region throughout Estonia.

Material and methods: Data from the Estonian Network of Forest Research Plots was used. After quantifying the selected indices, the best non-spatial indices and spatial indices (combined with neighbour selection methods) were separately devised into a growth model as a predictor variable to assess the ability of the diameter growth model before and after adding competition measures. To test the species-specific effect on the competition level, the superior indices were recalculated using Ellenberg’s light indicators and incorporated into the diameter growth model.

Main results: Statistical analyses showed that the diameter growth is a function of neighbourhood interactions and spatial indices were better growth predictors than non-spatial indices. In addition, the best selections of competitive neighbours were acquired based on the influence zone and the competition elimination angle concepts, and using Ellenberg’s light values had no significant improvement in quantifying the competition effects.

Research highlights: Although the best ranking spatial competition measures were superior to the best non-spatial indices, the differences were negligible.

Keywords: Competition indices; zone of influence; stem diameter increment; Betula pendula Roth.


ERRATUM PDF

 


Full Text:

PDF HTML XML

References


References

Alemdag IS, 1978. Evaluation of some competition indexes for the prediction of diameter increment in planted white spruce / by I.S. Alemdag. Forest Management Institute, Ottawa, Canada.

Alvarez MF, Barrio M, Gorgoso F, Alvarez JG, 2003. Influencia de la competencia en el crecimiento en sección en Pinus radiata D. Don. Invest Agrar Sist Rec For 12(2): 25–35.

Andreassen K, Tomter SM, 2003. Basal area growth models for individual trees of Norway spruce, Scots pine, birch and other broadleaves in Norway. For Ecol Manag 180: 11-24.

Assmann E, 1970. The Principles of Forest Yield Study, Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK.

Bates DM, Watts DG, 1988. Nonlinear regression analysis and its applications. Wiley, New York. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470316757

Begon M, Harper JL, Townsend CR, 1996. Ecology: individuals, populations and communities. Blackwell Science, New York. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781444313765

Bella IE, 1971. A New Competition Model for Individual Trees. For Sci17: 364-372.

Berger U, Hildenbrandt H, 2000. A new approach to spatially explicit modelling of forest dynamics: spacing, ageing and neighbourhood competition of mangrove trees. Ecol Model 132: 287-302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3800(00)00298-2

Biging GS, Dobbertin M, 1992. A Comparison of Distance-Dependent Competition Measures for Height and Basal Area Growth of Individual Conifer Trees. For Sci 38: 695-720.

Biging GS, Dobbertin M, 1995. Evaluation of Competition Indexes in Individual Tree Growth-models. For Sci 41: 360–377.

Bitterlich W, 1952. Die Winkelzählprobe. Forstw Cbl 71: 215–225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01821439

Boivin F, Paquette A, Papaik MJ, Thiffault N, Messier C, 2010. Do position and species identity of neighbours matter in 8-15-year-old post-harvest mesic stands in the boreal mixedwood? For Ecol Manag 260: 1124-1131.

Bošelá M, Petráš R, Šebeň V, Mecko J, Marušák R, 2013. Evaluating competitive interactions between trees in mixed forests in the Western Carpathians: Comparison between long-term experiments and SIBYLA simulations. For Ecol Manag 310, 577-588.

Brand DG, and Magnussen, S. 1988. Asymmetric, two-sided competition in even-aged monocultures of red pine. Can J For Res 18: 901–910. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/x88-137

Burkhart HE, Tomé M, 2012. Modeling Forest Trees and Stands. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-3170-9

Castagneri D, Vacchiano G, Lingua E, Motta R, 2008. Analysis of intraspecific competition in two subalpine Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Kast.) stands in Paneveggio (Trento, Italy). For Ecol Manag 255: 651–659.

Cole WG, Lorimer CG, 1994. Predicting tree growth from crown variables in managed northern hardwood stands. For Ecol Manag 67: 159–175.

Contreras MA, Affleck D, Chung W, 2011. Evaluating tree competition indices as predictors of basal area increment in western Montana forests. For Ecol Manag 262: 1939-1949.

Corral Rivas JJ, Álvarez González JG, Aguirre O, Hernández FJ, 2005. The effect of competition on individual tree basal area growth in mature stands of Pinus cooperi Blanco in Durango (Mexico). Eur J For Res 124: 133–142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10342-005-0061-y

D'Amato AW, Puettmann KJ, 2004. The relative dominance hypothesis explains interaction dynamics in mixed species Alnus rubra/Pseudotsuga menziesii forests. Ecol 92: 450–463. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-0477.2004.00888.x

Damgaard C, Weiner J, 2008. Modeling the growth of individuals in crowded plant populations. Plant Ecol 1: 111-116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpe/rtn008

Daniels RF, 1976. Simple competition indices and their correlation with annual loblolly pine tree growth. For. Sd. 22: 454-456.

Daniels RF, Burkhart HE, Clason TR, 1986. A comparison of competition measures for predicting growth of loblolly pine trees. Can J For Res 16: 1230-1237. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/x86-218

Ellenberg H, Weber HE, Düll R, Wirth V, Werner W, Paulissen D, 1991. Zeigerwerte von Pflanzen in Mitteleuropa. Scripta Geobotanica, 18: 1–248.

Fischer A, Lindner M, Abs C, Lasch P, 2002. Vegetation dynamics in central European forest ecosystems (near-natural as well as managed) after storm events. Folia Geobot 37: 17-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02803188

Ford ED, Diggle PJ, 1981. Competition for Light in a Plant Monoculture Modelled as a Spatial Stochastic Process. Annals of Botany 48: 481-500.

Hamilton DA, 1986. A logistic model of mortality in thinned and unthinned mixed conifer stands of Northern Idaho. For Sci 32(4): 989–1000.

He F, Duncan RP, 2000. Density-dependent effects on tree survival in an old-growth Douglas fir. For Ecol 88: 676–688.

Hegyi F, 1974. A simulation model for managing jackpine stands, In: Fries, J. (Ed.), Proceedings of IUFRO meeting S4.01.04 on Growth models for tree and stand simulation, Royal College of Forestry, Stockholm, Sweden.

Holmes MJ, Reed DD, 1991. Competition indices for mixed species northern hardwoods. For Sci 37: 1338-1349.

Hynynen J, Niemisto P, Vihera-Aarnio A, Brunner A, Hein S, Velling P, 2010. Silviculture of birch (Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh.) in northern Europe. Forestry 83: 103-119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/forestry/cpp035

Hynynen J, Repola J, Mielikäinen K, 2011. The effects of species mixture on the growth and yield of mid-rotation mixed stands of Scots pine and silver birch. For Ecol Manag 262: 1174-1183.

Jõgiste K, 1998. Productivity of mixed stands of Norway spruce and birch affected by population dynamics: a model analysis. Ecol Model 106: 77-91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3800(97)00183-X

Jõgiste K, 2010. A basal area increment model for Norway spruce in mixed stands in Estonia. Scan J For Res 15: 97–102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02827580050160529

Kaitaniemi P, Lintunen, A. 2010. Neighbor identity and competition influence tree growth in Scots pine, Siberian larch, and silver birch. Annals of For Sci 67: 604. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/forest/2010017

Kiviste A, Hordo M, 2002. Eesti metsa kasvukäigu püsiproovitükkide võrgustik (Network of permanent forest growth plots in Estonia) Forestry Studies 37: 43-58.

Kiviste A, Nilson A, Hordo M, Merenakk M, 2003. Diameter Distribution Models and Height-Diameter Equations for Estonian Forests. Modelling Forest Systems 169-179.

Lang M, Nilson T, Kuusk A, Kiviste A, Hordo M, 2007. The performance of foliage mass and crown radius models in forming the input of a forest reflectance model: A test on forest growth sample plots and Landsat 7 ETM+ images. Remote Sensing of Environment, 110(4): 445-457. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2006.11.030

Larocque GR, 2002. Examining different concepts for the development of a distance-dependent competition model for red pine diameter growth using long-term stand data differing in initial stand density. For Sci 48: 24–34.

Lee WK, Gadow Kv, 1997. Iterative Bestimmung von Konkurrenzbaeume in Pinus densiflora Bestaenden (Iterative selection of competitor trees in Pinus densiflora stands). Allg. For. Jagdztg 168: 41-45.

Lin JY, 1974. Stand growth simulation models for Douglas-fir and western hemlock in the northwestern United States, in: Fries J. (Ed.), Growth Models for Tree and Stand Simulation, Royal Coll. For., Stockholm, Sweden. Pp. 102–118.

Lorimer CG, 1983. Tests of age-independent competition indices for individual trees in natural hardwood stands. For Ecol Manag 6: 343–360.

Mailly D, Turbis S, Pothier D, 2003. Predicting basal area increment in a spatially explicit, individual tree model: a test of competition measures with black spruce. Can J For Res 33: 435-443. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/x02-122

Martin GL, Ek AR, 1984. A Comparison of Competition Measures and Growth Models for Predicting Plantation Red Pine Diameter and Height Growth. For Sci 30: 731-743.

Munro DD, 1974. Forest growth models –a prognosis. in J. Fries (ed.): Growth models for tree and stand simulation. Royal Coll. For., Res. Notes 30, pp. 7-21. Stockholm, Sweden.

Nanami S, Kawaguchi H, Yamakura T, 2005. Sex ratio and gender-dependent neighbouring effects in Podocarpus nagi, a dioecious tree. Plant Ecol 177: 209-222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11258-005-2210-2

Nilson A, 2005. Generalization of height growth as difference equations fit for estimating the site index of stands. Metsanduslikud Uurimused 43: 173-184.

Oheimb vG, Lang AC, Bruelheide H, Forrester DI, Wäsche I, Yu M, Härdtle W, 2011. Individual-tree radial growth in a subtropical broad-leaved forest: The role of local neighbourhood competition, For Ecol Manag 261: 499–507.

Pedersen RØ, Næsset E, Gobakken T, Bollandsås OM, 2013. On the evaluation of competition indices -The problem of overlapping samples. For Ecol Mang 310: 120-133.

Peet RK, Christensen NL, 1987. Competition and tree death. BioScience 37: 586-595. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1310669

Pretzsch H, Biber P, Ďurský J, 2002. The single tree-based stand simulator SILVA:construction, application and evaluation. Forest Ecol Manage 162: 3–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(02)00047-6

Pretzsch H, 2009. Forest Dynamics, Growth and Yield. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Germany. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-88307-4_1

Prévosto B, Coquillard P, Gueugnot J, 1999. Growth models of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) on two volcanic mountains in the French Massif Central. Plant Ecol 144: 231-242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1009858508312

Pukkala T, Kolström T, 1987. Competition indices and the prediction of radial growth in Scots pine Silva Fenn 21: 55-76.

R Development Core Team, 2014. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org.

Richards M, McDonald AJS, Aitkenhead MJ, 2008. Optimisation of competition indices using simulated annealing and artificial neural networks. Ecol Model 214: 375–384. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2008.03.008

Roberts SD, Harrington CA, 2008. Individual tree growth response to variable-density thinning in coastal Pacific Northwest forests. For Ecol Manag 255: 2771-2781.

Rouvinen S, Kuuluvainen T, 1997. Structure and asymmetry of tree crowns in relation to local competition in a natural mature Scot pine forest. Can J For Res 27: 890–902. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/x97-012

Schröder J, Gadow Kv, 1999. Testing a new competition index for Maritime pine in north western Spain. Can J For Res 29: 280-283.

Schröder J, Rodriguez R, Vega G, 2002. An age-independent basal area increment model for Maritime pine trees in northwestern Spain. For Ecol Manag 157: 55–64.

Siegel S, 1956. Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences. McCraw-Hill, New York.

Sims A, Kiviste A, Hordo M, Laarmann D, Gadow K v, 2009. Estimating tree survival: a study based on the Estonian Forest Research Plots Network. Annales Botanici Fennici 46: 336-352. http://dx.doi.org/10.5735/085.046.0409

Soares P, Tomé M, 1999. Distance-dependent competition measures for eucalyptus plantations in Portugal. Ann. For. Sci, 56: 307-319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/forest:19990405

Soares P, Tomé M, 2001. A tree crown ratio prediction equation for eucalypt plantations. Ann For Sci, 58: 193-202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/forest:2001118

Stadt KJ, Lieffers VJ, 2000. MIXLIGHT:A flexible light transmission model for mixed-species forest stands. Agricultur Foest. Meteorol. 102: 235–252. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1923(00)00128-3

Stadt KJ, Huston C, Coates KD, Feng ZL, DaleMRT, Lieffers VJ, 2007. Evaluation of competition and light estimation indices for predicting diameter growth in mature boreal mixed forests. Annals of For Sci 64: 477-490. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/forest:2007025

Staebler GR, 1951. Growth and spacing in an even-aged stand of Douglas-fir. Master's thesis, University of Michigan, USA.

Steneker GA, Jarvis JM, 1963. A preliminary study to assess competition in a white spruce-trembling aspen stand. For.Chron. 39: 334–336. http://dx.doi.org/10.5558/tfc39334-3

Tahvanainen T, Forss E, 2008. Individual tree models for the crown biomass distribution of Scots pine, Norway spruce and birch in Finland. For Ecol Manag 255: 455-467.

Tomé M, Burkhart HE, 1989. Distance-Dependent Competition Measures for Predicting Growth of Individual Trees. For Sci 35: 816-831.

Vanclay JK, 1991. Mortality functions for north Queensland rainforests. J. Tropical For Sci 4: 15–36.

Vitas A, 2011. Seasonal Growth Variations of Pine, Spruce, and Birch Recorded by Band Dendrometers in NE Lithuania. Bal For 17: 197-204.

Wagenmakers E.J, Farrell S, 2004. AIC model selection using Akaike weights. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11, 192-196. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03206482

Weigelt A, Jolliffe P, 2003. Indices of plant competition. Ecol J 91: 707–720. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2745.2003.00805.x

Wimberly MC, Bare BB, 1996. Distance-dependent and distance-independent models of Douglas-fir and western hemlock basal area growth following silvicultural treatment. For Ecol Manag 89: 1–11.

Wykoff WF, Crookston NL, Stage AR, 1982. User's guide to the Stand PrognosisModel. USDA Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-133.

Yearbook of Forest, 2013. Estonian environment information centre.Tartu [in Estonian].

Zhang C, Zhao X, Gao L, Gadow Kv, 2009. Gender, neighboring competition and habitat effects on the stem growth in dioecious Fraxinus mandshurica trees in a northern temperate forest. Annals of For Sci vc, 66(8): 812-819.

Zhao DH, Borders B, Wilson M, Rathbun SL, 2006. Modeling neighborhood effects on the growth and survival of individual trees in a natural temperate species-rich forest. Ecol Model 196: 90-102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2006.02.002




DOI: 10.5424/fs/2015242-05742

Webpage: www.inia.es/Forestsystems