Effect of retained Scots pine trees on regeneration, growth, form, and yield of forest stands

S. Valkonen


Green tree retention is predominantly motivated by the increasing complexity of objectives in forest management. It is one of the major methods for the creation of structurally complex stands for ecological and amenity benefits. Retention may promote regeneration in terms of regular seed tree, shelterwood, planting, or direct seeding methods. The effect of retaining Scots pine trees to various degrees and in varying stand structures was assessed, with emphasis on regeneration results, development of the juvenile stand, tree quality and economic results were assessed. Group retention seems to be the simplest way to practise retention with Scots pine for ecological and amenity purposes. Considerable difficulties can be expected when trying to regenerate pine under a dense shelter, naturally or artificially. After the regeneration phase, residual trees have adverse effects on the young generation. Sustainable uneven-aged structures are hard to create and maintain with Scots pine.


Tree retention; Growth; Yield; Regeneration; Quality

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