Advances in developing a new test method to assess spray drift potential from air blast sprayers

Marco Grella, Emilio Gil, Paolo Balsari, Paolo Marucco, Montserrat Gallart

Abstract


Drift is one of the most important issues to consider for realising sustainable pesticide sprays. This study proposes and tests an alternative methodology for quantifying the drift potential (DP) of air blast sprayers, trying to avoid the difficulties faced in conducting field trials according to the standard protocol (ISO 22866:2005). For this purpose, an ad hoc test bench designed for DP comparative measurements was used. The proposed methodology was evaluated in terms of robustness, repetitiveness and coherence by arranging a series of trials at two laboratories. Representative orchard and vineyard air blast sprayers in eight configurations (combination of two forward speeds, two air fan flow rates, and two nozzle types) were tested. The test bench was placed perpendicular to the spray track to collect the fraction of spray liquid remaining in the air after the spray process and potentially susceptible to drift out of the treated area. Downwind spray deposition curves were obtained and a new approach was proposed to calculate an index value of the DP estimation that could allow the differences among the tested configurations to be described. Results indicated that forward speed of 1.67 m/s allows better discrimination among configurations tested. Highest DP reduction, over 87.5%, was achieved using the TVI nozzles in combination with low air fan flow rate in both laboratories; conversely, the highest DP value was obtained with the ATR nozzles in combination with high air fan flow rate. Although the proposed method shows a promising potential to evaluate drift potential of different sprayer types and nozzles types used for bush and tree crops further research and tests are necessary to improve and validate this method.


Keywords


spray drift test bench; sprayer settings; nozzles; fan air flow rate; vineyard and orchard sprayers

Full Text:

PDF

References


Arvidsson T, Bergström L, Kreuger J, 2011. Spray drift as influenced by meteorological and technical factors. Pest Manag Sci 67: 586-598. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.2114

Baetens K, Ho QT, Nuyttens D, de Schampheleire M, Melese Endalew A, Hertog MLATM, Nicolaï B, Ramon H, Verboven P, 2009. A validated 2D diffusion–advection model for prediction of drift from ground boom sprayers. Atmos Environ 43(9): 1674-1682. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.12.047

Balsari P, Marucco P, Tamagnone M, 2007. A test bench for the classification of boom sprayers according to drift risk. Crop Prot 26: 1482-1489. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2006.12.012

Balsari P, Marucco P, Tamagnone M, 2012. Study of a test methodology to assess potential spray drift generated by air-assisted sprayers for arboreal crops. Proc AgEng Conf 2012. Valencia, Spain. Paper C1613.

Balsari P, Gil E, Marucco P, Gallart M, Bozzer C, Llop J, Tamagnone M, 2014. Study and development of a test methodology to assess potential drift generated by air-assisted sprayers. Proc International Advances in Pesticide Application, Aspects of Applied Biology 122, Oxford, pp: 339-346. http://upcommons.upc.edu/handle/2117/21367

Bouse LF, Kirk IW, Bode LE, 1990. Effect of spray mixture on droplet size. T ASAE 33 (3): 783-788. https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.31401

Cunha JP, Chueca P, Garcerá C, Moltó E, 2012. Risk assessment of pesticide spray drift from citrus applications with air-blast sprayers in Spain. Crop Prot 42: 116-123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2012.06.001

Dele MA, De Moor A, Sonk B, Ramon H, Nicolaï BM, Verboven P, 2005. Modelling and validation of the air flow generated by a cross flow air sprayer as affected by travel speed and fan speed. Biosyst Eng 92 (2): 165-174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2005.05.018

Doruchowski G, Swiechowski W, Godyn A, Holownicki R, 2009. Spray deposit in apple canopies as affected by low drift application strategies with environmentally dependent application system. Proc SuproFruit 2009 - 10th Workshop on Spray Application in Fruit Growing, Wageningen, Netherlands, Sept 30-Oct 2. pp: 26-27.

EC, 2009. Directive 2009/128/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 October 2009 establishing a framework for Community Action to schieve the sustainable use of pesticides. 21 October 2009. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2009:309:0071:0086:en:PDF

García-Ramos F, Vidal M, Bone A, 2009. Field evaluation of an air-assisted sprayer equipped with two reversed rotation fans. Appl Eng Agric 25 (4): 481-494. https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.27461

Gil E, Llorens J, Llop J, Fàbregas X, Gallart M, 2013. Use of terrestrial LIDAR sensor for drift detection on vineyard spraying. Sensors 13 (1): 516-534. https://doi.org/10.3390/s130100516

Gil E, Balsari P, Gallart M, Llorens J, Marucco P, Gummer Andersen P, Fàbregas X, Llop J, 2014. Determination of drift potential of different flat fan nozzles on a boom sprayer using a test bench. Crop Prot 56: 58-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2013.10.018

Gil E, Gallart M, Balsari P, Marucco P, Almajano MP, Llop J, 2015. Influence of wind velocity and wind direction on measurements of spray drift potential of boom sprayers using drift test bench. Agr Forest Meteorol 202: 94-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2014.12.002

Gosh S, Hunt JCR, 1998. Spray jets in a cross-flow. J Fluid Mech 365: 109-136. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022112098001190

Hewitt AJ, Miller PCH, Bagley WE, 2001. Interaction of tank mix and nozzle design on spray performance and drift potential. ASAE Paper 01-011081.

Hofman V, Solseng E, 2001. Reducing spray drift. North Dakota State University NDSU Ext Serv AE-1210, Fargo, ND, USA.

Huijsmans JFM, Zande JC van de, 2011. Workshop harmonisation of drift and drift reducing methodologies for evaluation and authorization of plant protection products. Wageningen UR Plant Res Int, WUR-PRI Report 390, Wageningen.

IBM Corp., 2013. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, vers 22.0. IBM Corp., Armonk, NY.

ISO, 2005. ISO 22866:2005: Crop protection equipment - Methods for field measurements of spray drift. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland. 17 pp.

ISO, 2006. ISO 22369-1:2006: Crop protection equipment - Drift classification of spraying equipment - Part 1: classes. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland. 1 pp.

ISO, 2010. ISO 22369-2:2010: Crop protection equipment - Drift classification of spraying equipment - Part 2: Classifications of field crop sprayers by field measurements. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland. 5 pp.

ISO, 2015. ISO 22401:2015: Equipment for crop protection - Method for measurement of potential drift from horizontal boom sprayer systems by the use of a test bench. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland. 12 pp.

Landers A, 2010. Developments towards an automatic precision sprayer for fruit crop canopies. ASABE Int Meet, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Paper 1009008.

Landers A, Gil E, 2006. Development and validation of a new deflector system to improve pesticide application in New York and Pennsylvania grape production. ASABE Int Meet, Portland, OR, USA. Paper 061001.

Llorens J, Gallart M, Llop J, Miranda-Fuentes A, Gil E, 2016. Difficulties to apply ISO 22866 requirements for drift measurements. A particular case of traditional olive tree plantations. Aspects of Applied Biology 132, International Advances in Pesticide Application, pp: 31-37.

Michielsen JMGP, Zande JC van de, Wenneker M, 2009. Nozzle classification for drift reduction in orchard spraying: Effect of nozzle type in a dormant stage orchards. Proc SuproFruit 2009 - 10th Workshop on Spray Application in Fruit Growing, Wageningen, Netherlands, Sept 30-Oct 2. pp: 36-37.

Miller PR, Salyani M, Hiscox AL, 2003. Remote measurement of spray drift from orchard sprayers using LIDAR. Proc Am Soc Agr Biol Eng, Las Vegas, NV, USA, 27-30 July; Ann Meet Paper 031093.

Nuyttens D, de Shampheleire M, Steurbaut W, Baetens K, Verboven P, Nicolaï B, Ramon H, Sonck B, 2006. Experimental study of factors influencing the risk of drift from field sprayers. Part 2: spray application technique. Aspects of Applied Biology 77, International Advances in Pesticide Application, pp: 1-8.

Nuyttens D, de Schampheleire M, Baetens K, Sonck B, 2007. The influence of operator controlled variables on spray drift from field crop sprayers. T ASABE 50 (4): 1129-1140. https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.23622

Nuyttens D, Taylor WA, de Schampheleire M, Verboven P, Dekeyser D, 2009. Influence of nozzle type and size on drift potential by means of different wind tunnel evaluation methods. Biosyst Eng 103: 271-280. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2009.04.001

Nuyttens D, de Schampheleire M, Verboven P, Sonck B, 2010. Comparison between indirect and direct spray drift assessment methods. Biosyst Eng 105: 2-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2009.08.004

Nuyttens D, Zwertvaegher I, Dekeyser D, 2014. Comparison between drift test bench results and other drift assessment techniques. Aspects of Applied Biology 122, International Advances in Pesticide Application, pp: 293-302.

Ozkan HE, Zhu H, 1998. Effect of major variables on drift distances of spray droplets. Ohio State Univ Ext Publ AEX 525-98, Columbus, OH, USA.

Rautmann D, Streloke M, Winkler R, 2001. New basic drift values in the authorization procedure for plant protection products. In: Workshop on Risk Assessment and Risk Mitigation Measures in the Context of the Authorization of Plant Protection Products (WORMM) 27-29 Sept 1999. Biologischen Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Heft 383, Braunschweig. pp: 131-141.

Ravier I, Haouisee E, Clément M, Seux R, Briand O, 2005. Field experiments for the evaluation of pesticide spray-drift on arable crops. Pest Manag Sci 61: 728-736. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.1049

Salyani M, Miller DR, Farooq M, Sweeb RD, 2013. Effects of sprayer operating parameters on airborne drift from citrus air-carrier sprayers. Agr Eng Int: CIGR Journal 15(1): 27. http://www.cigrjournal.org.

Sehsah EME, Herbst A, 2010. Drift potential for low pressure external mixing twin fluid nozzles based on wind tunnel measurements. Misr J Agr Eng 27: 438-464.

Southcombe ESE, Miller PCH, Ganzelmeier H, Zande JC van de, Miralles A, Hewitt AJ, 1997. The international (BCPC) spray classification system including a drift potential factor. Proc Brighton Crop Prot Conf-Weeds, Nov. Brighton, UK. pp: 371-380.

Triloff P, 2015. Results of measuring the air distribution of sprayers for 3D-Crops and parameters for evaluating and comparing fan types. Proc SuproFruit 2015 - 13th Workshop on Spray Application in Fruit Growing, Lindau, Germany. pp: 21-23.

Wenneker M, Heijne B, Zande JC van de, 2005. Effect of air induction nozzle (coarse droplet), air assistance and one-sided spraying of the outer tree row on spray drift in orchard spraying. Annu Rev Agr Eng 4 (1): 116-128.

Wenneker M, Zande JC van de, 2008. Drift reduction in orchard spraying using a cross flow sprayer equipped with reflection shields (Wanner) and air injection nozzles. Agr Eng Int: CIGR Ejournal X. Manuscript ALNARP 08 014.

Wenneker M, Zande JC van de, Michielsen JMGP, Stallinga H, 2015. Improving spray deposition and reducing spray drift in orchard spraying by multiple row sprayers. Proc SuproFruit 2015 - 13th Workshop on Spray Application in Fruit Growing, Lindau, Germany. pp: 85-86

Zande JC van de, Porskamp HAJ, Michielsen JMGP, Holterman HJ, Huijsmans JFM, 2000. Classification of spray applications for driftability, to protect surface water. Aspects of Applied Biology 66, Advances in Pesticide Application, pp: 57-65.

Zande JC van de, Porskamp HAJ, Holterman HJ, 2002. Influence of reference nozzle choice on spray drift classification. Aspects of Applied Biology 66, Advances in Pesticide Application, pp: 49-56.

Zande JC van de, Michielsen JMGP, Stallinga H, 2007. Spray drift and off-field evaluation of agrochemicals in the Netherlands. Report 149, July.

Zande JC van de, Holterman HJ, Wenneker M, 2008. Nozzle classification for drift reduction in orchard spraying: Identification of drift reduction class threshold nozzles. Agr Eng Int CIGR Ejournal X. Manuscript ALNARP 08 0013.

Zande JC van de, Stallinga H, Michielsen JMGP, van Velde P, 2010. Effect of width of spray-free buffer zones, nozzle type and air assistance on spray drift. Aspects of Applied Biology 99, Advances in Pesticide Application, pp: 255-263.

Zande JC van de, Wenneker M, Michielsen JMGP, Stallinga H, van Velde P, Joosten N, 2012. Nozzle classification for drift reduction in orchard spraying. Aspects of Applied Biology 114, International Advances in Pesticide Application. pp: 253-260.




DOI: 10.5424/sjar/2017153-10580