Residual toxicity of insecticides used in Tunisian citrus orchards on the imported parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): Implications for IPM program of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Ahlem Harbi, Khaled Abbes, Beatriz Sabater-Muñoz, Francisco Beitia, Brahim Chermiti

Abstract


Citrus agro-industry is globally harshened mainly by Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the most worldwide destructive tephritid fruit fly species. Citrus agro-industry is one of the pillars of Tunisia economy, and by hence, harshened by this species. Tunisia has established an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programme against citrus pests, including C. capitata, that rely on the structured use of pesticides, on the application several trapping protocols, along with pilot-scale sterile insect technique program and, since 2013, with pilot-scale releases of the braconid parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Ashmed (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Insecticide side-effects on parasitoids and other natural enemies are being requested for a successful implementation of biological control within any IPM programme. However, these data are almost scarce for the braconid species D. longicaudata. To this end, we have determined the side-effects of malathion, methidathion, acetamiprid, azadiractin, abamectin, deltametrin+thiacloprid and spinosad, as the most popular insecticides used in Tunisia either as fresh residues or at several aged time points, on the parasitoid D. longicaudata according the IOBC pesticide harm-classification. IOBC classification evolution of residues over time had allowed determining the best combination of pesticide applications in a structured fashion with the viable releases of D. longicaudata for the control of C. capitata in Tunisian citrus agro-ecosystems.


Keywords


integrated pest management; natural enemy; pesticide persistence; IOBC

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References


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DOI: 10.5424/sjar/2017153-10734