Farmer preference for improved corn seeds in Chiapas, Mexico: A choice experiment approach

Blanca I. Sánchez-Toledano, Zein Kallas, José M. Gil-Roig

Abstract


Appropriate technologies must be developed for adoption of improved seeds based on the farmers’ preferences and needs. Our research identified the farmers’ willingness to pay (WTP) as a key determinant for selecting the improved varieties of maize seeds and landraces in Chiapas, Mexico. This work also analyzed the farmers’ observed heterogeneity on the basis of their socio-economic characteristics. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire from 200 farmers. A proportional choice experiment approach was applied using a proportional choice variable, where farmers were asked to state the percentage of preference for different alternative varieties in a choice set. The generalized multinomial logit model in WTP-space approach was used. The results suggest that the improved seed varieties are preferred over the Creole alternatives, thereby ensuring higher yields, resistance to diseases, and larger ear size. For the preference heterogeneity analyses, a latent class model was applied. Three types of farmers were identified: innovators (60.5%), transition farmers (29.4%), and conservative farmers (10%). An understanding of farmers’ preferences is useful in designing agricultural policies and creating pricing and marketing strategies for the dissemination of quality seeds.


Keywords


Zea mays L.; proportional choice experiment; WTP-space model; latent class model

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ajambo R, Bashaasha B, Okori P, Elepu G, 2010. Producer and consumer preferences for maize and sorghum quality characteristics in Uganda. II RUFORUM Bienn Reg Conf on" Building capacity for food security in Africa". RUFORUM (Entebbe, Uganda), Sept 20-24. pp: 1627-1631.

Asrat S, Yesuf M, Carlsson F, Wale E, 2010. Farmers' preferences for crop variety traits: Lessons for on-farm conservation and technology adoption. Ecol Econ 69 (12): 2394-2401. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2010.07.006

Balogh P, Békési D, Gorton M, Popp J, Lengyel P, 2016. Consumer willingness to pay for traditional food products. Food Policy 61: 176-184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2016.03.005

Bastell R, Louviere J, 1991. Experimental analysis of choice. Market Lett 2 (3): 199-214. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02404072

Bellon M, 1991. The ethnoecology of maize variety management: A case study from Mexico. Human Ecol 19 (3): 389-418. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00888984

Bellon M, Risopoulos J, 2001. Small-scale farmers expand the benefits of improved maize germplasm: A case study from Chiapas, Mexico. World Dev 29 (5): 799-811. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-750X(01)00013-4

Bellon M, Adato M, Becerril J, Mindek D, 2006. Poor farmers' perceived benefits from different types of maize germplasm: The case of creolization in lowland tropical Mexico. World Dev 34 (1): 113-129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2005.05.012

Benz B, Perales H, Brush S, 2007. Tzeltal and Tzotzil farmer knowledge and maize diversity in Chiapas, Mexico. Curr Anthropol 48 (2): 289-300. https://doi.org/10.1086/512986

Bernard M, Hellin J, Nyikal R, Mburu J, 2010. Determinants for use of certified maize seed and the relative importance of transaction costs. Joint 3rd Afr Assoc Agr Econ and 48th Agr Econ Assoc of South Africa Conf. Cape Town, South Africa, Sept 19-23. pp: 1-26.

Birol E, Villalba E, 2006. Estimating Mexican farmers' valuation of Milpa diversity and genetically modified maize: A choice experiment approach. Environ Econ Policy Res Working Papers, 21.

Birol E, Smale M, Gyovai A, 2006. Using a choice experiment to estimate farmers' valuation of agrobiodiversity on Hungarian small farms. Environ Resour Econ 34: 439-469. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10640-006-0009-9

Birol E, Villalba E, Smale M, 2009. Farmer preferences for milpa diversity and genetically modified maize in Mexico: a latent class approach. Environ Dev Econ 14 (4): 521-540. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355770X08004944

Birol E, Smale M, Yorobe J, 2012. Bi-modal preferences for bt maize in the Philippines: A latent class model. AgBioForum 15 (2): 175-190.

Castillo J, Chávez C, 2013. Caracterización campesina del manejo y uso de la diervisad de maíces en San Felipe del Progreso, estado de México. Agricultura, Sociedad y Desarrollo 10 (1): 23-38.

ChoiceMetrics, 2014. Ngene 1.1.2 User manual and reference guide, Australia. 248 pp.

Copeland O, McDonald M, 2001. Principles of seed science and technology. Springer Science & Business Media, Massachusetts, USA. 467 pp. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-1619-4

Estrada B, Martínez V, Vázquez C, González M, 2015. Características eloteras y de grano de variedades nativas de maíz de Chiapas. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Agrícolas 6 (5): 1119-1127.

Ferro M, Ríos H, Chirino E, Márquez M, Valdés RJ, Suárez Y, Alfaro F, 2008. Entendiendo el sistema informal de semilla de maíz cubano. La selección de variedades de maíz (Zea mays, Lin) por campesinos de La palma, Pinar del Rio. Cultivos Tropicales 29 (1): 61-68.

Ferro E, Chirino E, Márquez M, Mirabal E, Ríos H, Guevara F, Alfaro F, 2013. Experiencias obtenidas en el desarrollo participativo de híbridos lineales simples de maíz (Zea mays, L.) en condiciones de bajos insumos agrícolas. Cultivos Tropicales 34 (2): 61-69.

Fiebig G, Keane P, Louviere J, Wasi N, 2010. The generalized multinomial logit model: Accounting for scale and coefficient heterogeneity. Market Sci 29 (3): 393-421. https://doi.org/10.1287/mksc.1090.0508

Fleming K, Kouassi A, Ondula E, Waweru P, 2016. Toward farmer decision profiles to improve food security in Kenya. IBM J Res Dev 60 (5/6): 6-10. https://doi.org/10.1147/JRD.2016.2592278

Gecho Y, Punjabi K, 2011. Determinants of adoption of improved maize technology in Damot Gale, Wolaita, Ethiopia. Rajasthan J Extens Educ 19 (1): 1-9.

Greene H, 2012. Reference guide of the NLOGIT 5, Econometric Software, Inc., NY.

Greene W, Hensher D, 2003. A latent class model for discrete choice analysis: contrasts with mixed logit. Transport Res B: Meth 37 (8): 681-698. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-2615(02)00046-2

Greene H, Hensher A, 2010. Does scale heterogeneity across individuals matter? An empirical assessment of alternative logit models. Transportation 37 (3): 413-428. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11116-010-9259-z

Hanley N, Wright R, Adamowicz V, 1998. Using choice experiments to value the environment. Environ Resour Econ 11 (3-4): 413-428. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008287310583

Hanley N, Mourato S, Wright E, 2001. Choice modelling approaches: a superior alternative for environmental valuation? J Econ Surv 15 (3): 435-462. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6419.00145

Harrison P, 2002. Agricultura mundial: hacia los años 2015/2030. Servicio de Publicaciones y Multimedia. Dirección de Información de la FAO.

Hellin J, Bellon M, 2007. Manejo de semillas y diversidad del maíz. AgriCultures Network. LEISA Revista de Agroecología 23 (2): 9-11.

Hellin J, Bellon M, Badstue L, 2006. Reduciendo la brecha entre la realidad de los investigadores y la de los agricultores. AgriCultures Network. LEISA Revista de Agroecología 22: 5- 8.

Hellyer E, Fraser I, Haddock-Fraser J, 2012. Food choice, health information and functional ingredients: An experimental auction employing bread. Food Policy 37 (3): 232-245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2012.02.005

Herrera E, Macías A, Díaz R, Valadez M, Delgado A, 2002. Uso de semilla criolla y caracteres de mazorca para la selección de semilla de maíz en México. Rev. Fitotecnia Mexicana 25 (1): 17-23.

Hirpa A, Meuwissen M, Van der Lans A, Lommen M, Oude Lansink M, Tsegaye A, Struik C, 2012. Farmers' opinion on seed potato management attributes in Ethiopia: A conjoint analysis. Agron J 104 (5): 1413-1424. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj2012.0087

Horna D, Smale M, Oppen V, 2007. Farmer willingness to pay for seed-related information: Rice varieties in Nigeria and Benin. Environ Dev Econ 12 (6): 799-825. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355770X07003956

Howley P, Buckley C, O Donoghue C, Ryan M, 2015. Explaining the economic "irrationality" of farmers' land use behaviour: The role of productivist attitudes and non-pecuniary benefits. Ecol Econ 109: 186-193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2014.11.015

Hu W, Hunnemeyer A, Veeman M, Adamowicz W, Srivastava L, 2004. Trading off health, environmental and genetic modification attributes in food. Eur Rev Agr Econ 31 (3): 389-408. https://doi.org/10.1093/erae/31.3.389

INEGI, 2015. Encuesta Nacional Agropecuaria ENA 2014. Resultados. http://www.inegi.org.mx/est/contenidos/proyectos/encuestas/agropecuarias/ena/ena2014/doc/pre sentacion/ena2014_pres.pdf (July 15, 2016)

Kalinda T, Tembo G, Kuntashula E, 2014. Adoption of improved maize seed varieties in Southern Zambia. Asian J Agr Sci 6 (1): 33-39.

Kallas Z, Gómez-Limón J, 2007. Agricultural multifunctionality valuation : A case study using the choice. Estud Econ Aplic 25 (1): 107-144.

Kallas Z, Serra T, Gil J, 2010. Farmers' objectives as determinants of organic farming adoption: the case of Catalonian vineyard production. Agr Econ 41 (5): 409-423. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-0862.2010.00454.x

Kassie G, Abdulai A, MacRobert F, Abate T, Shiferaw B, Tarekegne A, Maleni D, 2014. Willingness to pay for drought tolerance (DT) in maize in communal areas of Zimbabwe. 88th An Conf, AgroParisTech, Paris, France. April 9-11, pp: 1- 27.

Kassie G, Abdulai A, Greene H, Shiferaw B, Abate T, Tarekegne A, Sutcliffe C, 2017. Modeling preference and willingness to pay for drought tolerance (DT) in maize in rural Zimbabwe. World Dev 94 (1): 465-477. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.02.008

Kyeyune V, Turner S, 2016. Yielding to high yields? Critiquing food security definitions and policy implications for ethnic minority livelihoods in upland Vietnam. Geoforum 71: 33-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2016.03.001

Lancaster J, 1966. A new approach to consumer theory. J Polit Econ 74(2): 132-157. https://doi.org/10.1086/259131

Li J, Lammerts E, Jiggins J, Leeuwis C, 2012. Farmers' adoption of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids and the persistence of landraces in Southwest China: implications for policy and breeding. Genet Resour Crop Evol 59 (6): 1147-1160. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-011-9750-1

Lockshin L, Jarvis W, D'Hauteville F, Perrouty J, 2006. Using simulations from discrete choice experiments to measure consumer sensitivity to brand, region, price, and awards in wine choice. Food Qual Prefer 17 (3-4): 166-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2005.03.009

Louviere J, 1981. Laboratory simulation vs. revealed preference methods for estimating travel demand models: an empirical comparison. Transport Res Rec 794: 42-51.

Louviere J, 2001. Choice experiments: an overview of concepts and issues. In: The choice modelling approach to environmental valuation; Bennett J & Blarney R (Eds). E. Elgar Publ. UK. pp: 1-36.

Louviere J, Meyer R, 2007. Formal choice models of informal choices: What choice modeling research can (and can't) learn from behavioral theory. In: Review of Marketing Research; Malhotra NK ed. M. E. Sharpe, NY. pp: 3-32.

Louviere J, Street D, Burgess L, Wasi N, Islam T, Marley A, 2008. Modelling the choices of individuals decision makers by combining efficient choice experiment designs with extra preference information. J. Choice Model 1 (1): 128-163. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70025-3

Luna M, Hinojosa A, Ayala O, Castillo F, Mejía A, 2011. Perspectivas de desarrollo de la industria semillera de maíz en México. Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana 35 (1): 1-7.

Lusk L, Roosen J, Fox A, 2003. Demand for beef from cattle administered growth hormones or fed genetically modified corn: A comparison of consumers in France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Am J Agr Econ 85 (1): 16-29. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8276.00100

Makokha S, Karugia J, Stall S, Oluoch W, 2007. Valuation of cow attributes by conjoint analysis: A case study of Western Kenya. Afjare 1 (2): 1-19.

Martínez M, Ríos H, Miranda S, Moreno I, Acosta R, Farrera A, Velasco J, 2006. Caracterización de la diversidad y selección participativa de prospecciones de maíz en Chiapas, México. Cultivos Tropicales 27 (1): 55-62.

McFadden D, 1974. Conditional logit analysis of qualitative choice behavior. In: Frontiers in econometrics; Zarembka P, (Ed). Academic Press, NY.

Meas T, Hu W, Batte M, Woods T, Ernst S, 2015. Substitutes or complements? Consumer preference for local and organic food attributes. Am J Agr Econ 97 (4): 1044-1071. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajae/aau108

Morris L, Bellon M, 2004. Participatory plant breeding research: Opportunities and challenges for the international crop improvement system. Euphytica 136 (1): 21-35. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:EUPH.0000019509.37769.b1

Nelson C, Rosegrant W, Koo J, Robertson R, Sulser T, Zhu T, Ringler C, Msangi S, Palazzo A, Batka M, et al., 2009. Cambio climático: El impacto en la agricultura y los costos de adaptación. IFPRI. 28 pp.

Ortega L, Waldman B, Richardson B, Clay C, Snapp S, 2016. Sustainable intensification and farmer preferences for crop system attributes: Evidence from Malawi's Central and Southern Regions. World Dev 87 (1): 139-151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2016.06.007

Paredes C, Martin A, 2007. Adoption of transgenic crops by smallholder farmers in Entre Rios, Argentina. Proc of 2007 AAEA WAEA & CAES Joint Annual Meeting. Portland, OR, USA, Jul 29-Aug 1, pp: 1-26.

Rivera A, Romero H, 2003. Evaluación del nivel de transferencia y adopción de tecnología en el cultivo de caña de azúcar en Córdoba, Veracruz, México. Avances en la Investigación Agropecuaria 21 (2): 20-40.

Roessler R, Drucker A, Scarpa R, Markemann A, Lemke U, Thuy L, Valle A, 2008. Using choice experiments to assess smallholder farmers' preferences for pig breeding traits in different production systems in North-West Vietnam. Ecol Econ 66 (1): 184-192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.08.023

Salgado V, Miranda G, 2010. El mercado de semilla mejorada de maíz por entidad federativa. Economía Actual 3 (1): 10-12.

Scarpa R, Drucker A, Anderson S, Ferraes N, Gómez V, Risopatrón C, Rubio O, 2003. Valuing genetic resources in peasant economies: the case of "hairless" creole pigs in Yucatan. Ecol Econ 45 (3): 427-443. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-8009(03)00095-8

Scarpa R, Thiene M, Train K, 2008. Utility in willingness to pay space: A tool to address confounding random scale effects in destination choice to the Alps. Am J Agr Econ 90 (4): 994-1010. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8276.2008.01155.x

SIAP, 2016. Avances de siembras y cosechas por estado y año agrícola. Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación. http://infosiap.siap.gob.mx:8080/agricola_siap_gobmx/ResumenProducto.do [March 15, 2016].

Sibiya J, Tongoona P, Derera J, Makandaa I, 2013. Farmers' desired traits and selection criteria for maize varieties and their implications for maize breeding: A case study from Kwazulu-Natal Province, South Africa. J Agr Rur Dev Trop Subtrop 114 (1): 39-49.

Soleri D, Cleveland D, 2001. Farmers' genetic perceptions regarding their crop populations: An example with maize in the central valleys of Oaxaca, Mexico. Econ Bot 55 (1): 106-128. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02864550

Spielman DJ, Davis K, Negash M, Ayele G, 2011. Rural innovation systems and networks: findings from a study of Ethiopian smallholders. Agr Hum Values 28: 195-212. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10460-010-9273-y

Thurstone L, 1927. A law of comparative judgement. Psychol Rev 34: 273-286. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0070288

Train K, Weeks M, 2005. Discrete choice models in preference space and willingness-to-pay space. In: Applications of simulation methods in environmental and resource economics; Alberini A, Scarpa R. (eds). New Zeland. pp: 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-3684-1_1

Tudela W, Martínez A, Valdivia R, Portillo M, Romo L, 2009. Modelos de elección discreta en la valoración económica de áreas naturales protegidas. Revista Mexicana de Economía Agrícola y de los Recursos Naturales 2 (3): 7-29.

Turrent A, Wise T, Garvey E, 2012. Factibilidad de alcanzar el potencial productivo de maíz de México. Mex Rur Dev Res Rep, pp: 1-32.

Valdivia R, Espinosa A, Tadeo M, Caro F, Aguilar J, Vidal V, Ruelas P, López G, 2015. "Cora 2012": híbrido intervarietal de maíz para Nayarit y regiones similares. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Agrícolas 6 (2): 417-420.

Villanueva J, Glenk K, Rodríguez-Entrena M, 2017. Protest responses and willingness to accept: Ecosystem services providers' preferences towards incentive-based schemes. J Agr Econ, DOI: 10.1111/1477-9552.12211. https://doi.org/10.1111/1477-9552.12211

Waldman B, Ortega L, Richardson B, Snapp S, 2017. Estimating demand for perennial pigeon pea in Malawi using choice experiments. Ecol Econ 13: 222-230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2016.09.006

Windle J, Rolfe J, 2005. Diversification choices in agriculture: A choice modelling case study of sugarcane growers. Aust J Agr Resour Econ 49 (1): 63-74. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8489.2005.00279.x

Wu L, Wang S, Zhu D, Hu W, Wang H, 2015. Chinese consumers' preferences and willingness to pay for traceable food quality and safety attributes: The case of pork. Chin Econ Rev 35: 121-136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chieco.2015.07.001




DOI: 10.5424/sjar/2017153-11096