Comparison of how different feed phosphates affect performance, bone mineralization and phosphorus retention in broilers

Manel Hamdi, David Solà-Oriol, Rosa Franco-Rosselló, Rosa Aligué-Alemany, José F. Pérez

Abstract


The objective of this work was to evaluate the comparative P bio-avalability of different sources of phosphate based on their effects on animal performance, bones mineralization and mineral retention in broilers. To achieve this goal, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, twenty diets were prepared including five different phosphorus sources, either mono-calcium phosphate (MCP) or 4 different batches of di-calcium phosphate, to supplement non phytic P (NPP) levels at 3.0, 3.5, 4.0 and 4.5 g/kg in the diets. In Experiment 2, three treatments were used: the low MCP diet was deficient in NPP (3.1 g/kg for the starter phase and 2.8 g/kg for the grower phase); the high MCP diet and the high TCP (tri-calcium phosphate) diet included adequate levels of NPP (4.4-4.7 g/kg for the starter phase and 4.2-4.3 g/kg for the grower phase). Phytase was not added to experimental diets. Results of Exp. 1 indicated that an increase of NPP in the diet from 3.0 to 4.0 g/kg increased weight gain and feed intake between d 1 and d 21 (Trial 1). Alternatively, tibia weight and ash percentage at d 21 responded up to the level of 4.5 g/kg and showed significant difference with birds of the 4.0 g/kg NPP group. In Trial 2, chickens fed with the high MCP and TCP had improved growth performances and bone mineralization. No differences were observed on the P availability among different mineral P sources. A level of 4.5 g/kg, NPP is recommended when phytase is not included to maximize both performance and bone mineralization in broiler chickens up to d 21.


Keywords


mineralization; digestibility; calcium; phosphorus sources

Full Text:

PDF

References


Akter M, Graham H, Iji PA, 2016. Response of broiler chickens to different levels of calcium, non-phytate phosphorus and phytase. Brit Poult Sci 57 (6): 799-809. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2016.1216943

Al-Masri MR, 1995. Absorption and endogenous excretion of phosphorus in growing broiler chicks, as influenced by calcium and phosphorus ratios in feed. Brit J Nutr 74: 407-415. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19950144

Applegate TJ, Richert B, 2008. Phytase and other phosphorus reducing feed ingredients. USDA-NRCS. https://puyallup.wsu.edu/lnm/wp-content/uploads/sites/346/2014/11/Phytase-fact-sheet-final.pdf

Brenes A, Viveros A, Arija I, Centeno C, Pizarro M, Bravo C, 2003. The effect of citric acid and microbial phytase on mineral utilization in broiler chicks. Anim Feed Sci Technol 110: 201-219. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(03)00207-4

Burnell TW, Cromwell G L, Stahly TS, 1990. Effects of particle size on the biological availability of calcium and phosphorus in defluorinated phosphate for chicks. Poul Sci 69: 1110-1117. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0691110

Coon CN, Seo S, Manangi MK, 2007. The determination of retainable phosphorus, relative biological availability, and relative biological value of phosphorus sources for broilers. Poult Sci 86: 857-868.

De Groote G, Huyghebaert G, 1997. The bioavailability of phosphorus from feed phosphates for broilers as influenced by bioassay method, dietary Ca-level and feed form. Anim Feed Sci Technol 69: 329-340. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(97)00029-1

Eekhout W, De Paepe M, 1997. The digestibility of three calcium phosphates for pigs as measured by difference and by slope-ratio assay. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 77: 53-60. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.1997.tb00737.x

European Parliament, 2010. Directive 2010/63/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 September 2010 on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes.

FEDNA, 2008. Necesidades nutricionales para Avicultura: Pollos de carne y aves de puesta; Lázaro R & Mateos GG (eds). Fundación Española para el Desarrollo de la Nutrición Animal, Madrid, Spain.

FEDNA, 2010. Necesidades nutricionales para Avicultura: Pollos de carne y aves de puesta; Lázaro R & Mateos GG (eds). Fundación Española para el Desarrollo de la Nutrición Animal, Madrid, Spain.

Fernandes JIM, Lima FR, Mendonc CX, Mabe I, Albuquerque R, Leal PM, 1999. Relative bioavailability of phosphorus in feed and agricultural phosphates for poultry. Poult Sci 78: 1729-1736. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/78.12.1729

Gillis MB, Edwards HM, Young RJ Jr, 1962. Studies on the availability of calcium orthophosphates to chickens and turkeys. J Nutr 78: 155-161.

Grimbergen AHM, Cornelissen JP, Stappers HP, 1985. The relative bioavailability of phosphorus in inorganic feed phosphates for young turkey and pigs. Anim Feed Sci Technol 13: 117-130. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(85)90047-1

Hamdi M, López-Vergé S, Manzanilla EG, Barroeta AC, Pérez JF, 2015a. Effect of different levels of calcium and phosphorus and their interaction on the performance of young broilers. Poul Sci 94: 2144-2151. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pev177

Hamdi M, Davin R, Solà-Oriol D, Pérez JF, 2015b. Calcium sources and their interaction with the level of inorganic phosphorus affect performance and bone mineralization in broiler chickens. Poult Sci 94: 2136-2143. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/peu061

Leske K, Coon C, 2002. The development of feedstuff retainable phosphorus values for broilers. Poult Sci 81: 1681-1693. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/81.11.1681

Létourneau-Montminy MP, Jondreville C, Pomar C, Magnin M, Sauvant D, Bernier JF, Nys Y, Lescoat P, 2007. Meta-analysis of phosphorus utilisation in broilers. Proc WPSA XVI Eur Symp on Poultry Nutrition, Strasbourg, p. 82.

Létourneau-Montminy MP, Lescoat P, Narcy A, Sauvant D, Bernier JF, Magnin M, Pomar C, Nys Y, Jondreville C, 2008. Effects of reduced dietary calcium and phytase supplementation on calcium and phosphorus utilization in broilers with modified mineral status. Brit Poult Sci 49: 705-715. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071660802471446

Lima FR, Mendonc CX, Alvarez JC, Garzillo HJMF, Ghion E, Leali PM, 1997. Biological evaluations of commercial dicalcium phosphates as sources of available phosphorus for broiler chicks. Poult Sci 76: 1707-1713. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/76.12.1707

Lonnerdal B, Sandberg AS, Sandstrom B, Kunz C, 1989. Inhibitory effects of phytic acid and other inositol phosphates on zinc and calcium absorption in suckling rats. J Nutr 119: 211-214.

Maenz DD, Engele-Schaan CM, Newkirk RW, Classen HL, 1999. The effect of minerals and mineral chelators on the formation of phytase-resistant and phytase-susceptible forms of phytic acid in solution and in a slurry of canola meal. Anim Feed Sci Technol 81: 177-192. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(99)00085-1

NRC, 1994. Nutrient requirements of poultry, 9th rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC.

Petersen GI, Pedersen C, Lindemann MD, Stein HH, 2011. Relative bioavailability of phosphorus in inorganic phosphorus sources fed to growing pigs. J Anim Sci 89: 460-466. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2009-2161

Ravindran V, Kornegay ET, Potter LM, Ogunabameru BO, Welten MK, Wilson JH, Potchanakorn M, 1995. An evaluation of various response criteria in assessing biological availability of phosphorus for broilers. Poult Sci 74: 1820-1830. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0741820

Rostagno HS (ed), 2017. Brazilian tables for poultry and swine. Composition of feedstuffs and nutritional requirements, 4th ed. Federal University of Viçosa.

Rucker R, Parker H, Rogler JC, 1968. Utilization of calcium and phosphorus from hydrous and anhydrous dicalcium phosphates. J Nutr 96: 513-518.

Shafey TM, McDonald MW, 1991. The effects of dietary calcium, phosphorus and protein on the performance and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens. Poult Sci 70: 548-553. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0700548

Shastak Y, Witzig M, Hartung K, Rodehutscord M, 2012. Comparison of retention and prececal digestibility measurements in evaluating mineral phosphorus sources in broilers. Poult Sci 91: 2201-2209. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2011-02063

Simpson CJ, Wise A, 1990. Binding of zinc and calcium to inositol phosphates (phytate) in vitro. Brit J Nutr 64: 225-232. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19900024

Tamim NM, Angel R, 2003. Phytate phosphorus hydrolysis as influenced by dietary calcium and micro-mineral source in broiler diets. J Agric Food Chem 51: 4687-4693. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf034122x

Viveros A, Brenes A, Arija I, Centeno C, 2002. Effects of microbial phytase supplementation on mineral utilization and serum enzyme activities in broiler chicks fed different levels of phosphorus. Poult Sci 81: 1172-1183. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/81.8.1172

Wasserman RH, Taylor AN, 1973. Intestinal absorption of phosphate in the chick. Effect of vitamin D3 and other parameters. J Nutr 103: 586-599.

Wilcox RA, Carlson CW, Kohlmeyer W, Gastler GF, 1954. The availability of phosphorus from different sources for poults fed purified diets. Poult Sci 33: 1010-1014. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0331010

Wise A, 1983. Dietary factors determining the biological activities of phytate. Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews 53: 791-806.

Yan F, Kersey JH, Waldroup PW, 2001. Phosphorus requirements of broiler chicks three to six weeks of age as influenced by phytase supplementation. Poult Sci 80: 455-459. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/80.4.455




DOI: 10.5424/sjar/2017153-11149