Grain number and grain weight as determinants of triticale, wheat, two-rowed and six-rowed barley yield in the Pannonian environment

Milan Mirosavljević, Vojislava Momčilović, Srbislav Denčić, Sanja Mikić, Dragana Trkulja, Novo Pržulj


Climate significantly affects cropping systems across Europe. Knowledge of the variability in grain number per unit area and grain weight across different growing seasons and its association with grain yield is important for further improving small grain crop production. The main aim of this study was to compare grain yield and its numerical components among triticale, wheat, two-rowed and six-rowed barley cultivars across different growing seasons in a typical Pannonian location (south-eastern part of Central Europe). Trials with twelve winter cereal genotypes (three two-rowed barley, three six-rowed barley, three wheat and three triticale genotypes) were carried out in four successive seasons in Novi Sad, Serbia. Results of this study showed that growing season, species, cultivar, and species × growing season interaction significantly (p<0.01) affected grain yield and its determinants. Generally, triticale had higher average grain yield, while the lowest grain yield was recorded in six-rowed barleys. Grain yield was more associated with the number of grains/m2 than with grain weight. Heading date was recognized as one of the important adaptive traits in crop development and yield determination. Short duration of the pre-anthesis phase in early cultivars and delayed anthesis in late cultivars significantly decreased the number of grains/spike in different species/spike types, reducing the final grain yield. Medium early cultivars had the highest number of grains/spike due to optimal duration of the pre-anthesis period and heading date and are suggested as recommendable for large scale production in the Pannonian environments.


cultivars; heading date; Pannonian plain

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DOI: 10.5424/sjar/2018163-11388