Grain number and grain weight as determinants of triticale, wheat, two-rowed and six-rowed barley yield in the Pannonian environment

Milan Mirosavljević, Vojislava Momčilović, Srbislav Denčić, Sanja Mikić, Dragana Trkulja, Novo Pržulj

Abstract


Climate significantly affects cropping systems across Europe. Knowledge of the variability in grain number per unit area and grain weight across different growing seasons and its association with grain yield is important for further improving small grain crop production. The main aim of this study was to compare grain yield and its numerical components among triticale, wheat, two-rowed and six-rowed barley cultivars across different growing seasons in a typical Pannonian location (south-eastern part of Central Europe). Trials with twelve winter cereal genotypes (three two-rowed barley, three six-rowed barley, three wheat and three triticale genotypes) were carried out in four successive seasons in Novi Sad, Serbia. Results of this study showed that growing season, species, cultivar, and species × growing season interaction significantly (p<0.01) affected grain yield and its determinants. Generally, triticale had higher average grain yield, while the lowest grain yield was recorded in six-rowed barleys. Grain yield was more associated with the number of grains/m2 than with grain weight. Heading date was recognized as one of the important adaptive traits in crop development and yield determination. Short duration of the pre-anthesis phase in early cultivars and delayed anthesis in late cultivars significantly decreased the number of grains/spike in different species/spike types, reducing the final grain yield. Medium early cultivars had the highest number of grains/spike due to optimal duration of the pre-anthesis period and heading date and are suggested as recommendable for large scale production in the Pannonian environments.


Keywords


cultivars; heading date; Pannonian plain

Full Text:

PDF HTML XML

References


Abeledo LG, Calderini DF, Slafer GA, 2008. Nitrogen economy in old and modem malting barleys. Field Crop Res 106: 171-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2007.11.006

Alvarez-Prado SA, Gallardo JM, Kruk BC, Miralles DJ, 2017. Strategies for yield determination of bread wheat and two-row barley growing under different environments: A comparative study. Field Crops Res 203: 94-105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2016.12.013

Araus JL, Slafer GA, Royo C, Serret MD, 2008. Breeding for yield potential and stress adaptation in cereals. Crit Rev Plant Sci 27: 377-412. https://doi.org/10.1080/07352680802467736

Arisnabarreta S, Miralles DJ, 2008. Critical period for grain number establishment of near isogenic lines of two- and six-rowed barley. Field Crop Res 107: 196-202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2008.02.009

Beche E, Benin G, da Silva CL, Munaro LB, Marchese JA, 2014. Genetic gain in yield and changes associated with physiological traits in Brazilian wheat during the 20th century. Eur J Agron 61: 49-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2014.08.005

Borràs G, Romagosa I, van Eeuwijk F, Slafer GA, 2009. Genetic variability in the duration of pre-heading phases and relationships with leaf appearance and tillering dynamics in a barley population. Field Crop Res 113: 95-104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2009.03.012

Calderini DF, Abeledo LG, Savin R, Slafer GA, 1999. Final grain weight in wheat as affected by short periods of high temperature during pre and post-anthesis under field conditions. Aust J Plant Physiol 26: 453-458. https://doi.org/10.1071/PP99015

Dias AS, Lindon FC, 2009. Evaluation of grain filling rate and duration in bread wheat and durum wheat under heat stress after anthesis. J Agron Crop Sci 195: 137-147. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-037X.2008.00347.x

Dodig D, Zoric M, Kobiljski B, Savic J, Kandic V, Quarrie S, Barnes J, 2012. Genetic and association mapping study of wheat agronomic traits under contrasting water regimes. Int J Mol Sci 13: 6167-6188. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13056167

Ebrahimi E, Manschadi AM, Neugschwandtner RW, Eitzinger J, Thaler S, Kaul HP, 2016. Assessing the impact of climate change on crop management in winter wheat-a case study for Eastern Austria. J Agric Sci 154: 1153-1170. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859616000083

Estrada-Campuzano G, Miralles DJ, Slafer GA, 2008. Yield determination in triticale as affected by radiation in different development phases. Eur J Agron 28: 597-605. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2008.01.003

EEA 2012. Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe: An Indicator-based report. EEA Report No 12/2012. Copenhagen, Denmark.

FAOSTAT, 2014. FAOSTAT database. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. http://faostat3.fao.org

Ferrante A, Savin R, Slafer GA, 2013. Is floret primordia death triggered by floret development in durum wheat? J Exp Bot 64: 2859-2869. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/ert129

Fischer RA, 2007. Understanding the physiological basis of yield potential in wheat. J Agr Sci 145: 99-113. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859607006843

Fischer RA, 2008. The importance of grain or kernel number in wheat: A reply to Sinclair and Jamieson. Field Crop Res 105: 15-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2007.04.002

Fischer RA, 2011. Wheat physiology: A review of recent developments. Crop Pasture Sci 62: 95-114. https://doi.org/10.1071/CP10344

Foulkes MJ, Slafer GA, Davies WJ, Berry PM, Sylvester-Bradley R, Martre P, Calderini DF, Griffiths S, Reynolds MP, 2011. Raising yield potential of wheat. III. Optimizing partitioning to grain while maintaining lodging resistance. J Exp Bot 62: 469-486. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erq300

Francia E, Tondelli A, Rizza F, Badec, FW, Thomas WTB, van Eeuwijk, Romagosa I, Stanca, AM, Pecchioni N, 2013. Determinants of barley grain yield in drought-prone Mediterranean environments. Ital J Agron 8 (1): 1-8. https://doi.org/10.4081/ija.2013.e1

Gallagher JN, 1979. Field studies of cereal leaf growth. I. Initiation and expansion in relation to temperature and ontogeny. J Exp Bot 30: 625-636. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/30.4.625

Garcia Del Moral LF, Rharrabti Y, Villegas D, Royo C, 2003. Evaluation of grain yield and its components in durum wheat under mediterranean conditions: An ontogenic approach. Agron J 95: 266-274. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj2003.0266

Giunta F, Motzo R, Deidda M, 1993. Effect of drought on yield and yield components of durum wheat and triticale in a Mediterranean environment. Field Crops Res 33: 399-409. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4290(93)90161-F

González FG, Miralles DJ, Slafer GA, 2011. Wheat floret survival as related to pre-anthesis spike growth. J Exp Bot 62: 4889-4901. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/err182

Griffiths S, Wingen L, Pietragalla J, Garcia G, Hasan A, Miralles D, et al., 2015. Genetic dissection of grain size and grain number trade-offs in CIMMYT wheat germplasm. PLoS One 10: e0118847. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118847

Hristov N, Mladenov N, Kondic-Špika A, Marjanovic Jernomela A, Jockovic B, Jacimovic G, 2011. Effect of environmental and genetic factors on the correlation and stability of grain yield components in wheat. Genetika 43: 141-152. https://doi.org/10.2298/GENSR1101141H

Isidro J, Álvaro F, Royo C, Villegas D, Miralles DJ, Garcia del Moral LF, 2011. Changes in duration of developmental phases of durum wheat caused by breeding in Spain and Italy during the 20th century and its impact on yield. Ann Bot-London 107: 1355-1366. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcr063

IPCC, 2013. Climate Change 2013: The physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the 5th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; Stocker, T.F. et al (eds.). Cambridge Univ. Press.

Kaur V, Behl RK, 2010. Grain yield in wheat as affected by short periods of high temperature, drought and their interaction during pre- and post- anthesis stages. Cereal Res Commun 38: 514-520. https://doi.org/10.1556/CRC.38.2010.4.8

Koutroubas SD, Fotiadis S, Damalas CA, Papageorgiou M, 2014. Grain-filling patterns and nitrogen utilization efficiency of spelt (Triticum spelta) under Mediterranean conditions. J Agr Sci 152: 716-730. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859613000324

Lizana XC, Calderini DF, 2013. Yield and grain quality of wheat in response to increased temperatures at key periods for grain number and grain weight determination, considerations for the climatic change scenarios of Chile. J Agr Sci 151: 209-221. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859612000639

Mirosavljević M, Pržulj N, Boćanski J, Stanisavljević D, Mitrović B, 2014. The application of AMMI model for barley cultivars evaluation in multi-year trials. Genetika 46: 445-454. https://doi.org/10.2298/GENSR1402445M

Mirosavljevic M, Momčilović V, Pržulj N, Hristov N, Aćin V, Čanak P, Denčić S, 2016. The variation of agronomic traits associated with breeding progress in winter barley cultivars / Žieminių miežių veislių agronominių savybių kaita susijusi su selekcijos pažanga. Zemdirbyste 103: 267-272. https://doi.org/10.13080/z-a.2016.103.034

Mladenov N, Hristov N, Kondic-Spika A, Djuric V, Jevtic R, Mladenov V, 2011. Breeding progress in grain yield of winter wheat cultivars grown at different nitrogen levels in semiarid conditions. Breeding Sci 61: 260-268. https://doi.org/10.1270/jsbbs.61.260

Olesen JE, Trnka M, Kersebaum KC, Skjelvag AO, Seguin B, Peltonen-Sainio P, Rossi F, Kozyra J, Micale F, 2011. Impacts and adaptation of European crop production systems to climate change. Eur J Agron 34: 96-112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2010.11.003

Olesen JE, Børgesen CD, Elsgaard L, Palosuo T, Rötter RP, Skjelvåg AO et al., 2012. Changes in time of sowing, flowering and maturity of cereals in Europe under climate change. Food Addit Contam 29: 1527-1542. https://doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2012.712060

Peltonen-Sainio P, Kangas A, Salo Y, Jauhiainen L, 2007. Grain number dominates grain weight in temperate cereal yield determination: evidence based on 30 years of multi-location trials. Field Crop Res 100: 179-188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2006.07.002

Peltonen-Sainio P, Jauhiainen L, Rajala A, Muurinen S, 2009. Tiller traits of spring cereals under tiller-depressing long day conditions. Field Crops Res 113: 82-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2009.04.012

Pržulj N, Momčilović V, 2011. Importance of spikelet formation phase in the yield biology of winter barley. Ratar Povrt 48 (1): 37-48. https://doi.org/10.5937/ratpov1101037P

Pržulj N, Momčilović V, 2012. Spring barley performances in the Pannonian zone. Genetika 44: 499-512. https://doi.org/10.2298/GENSR1203499P

Pržulj N, Mirosavljević M, Čanak P, Zorić M, Boćanski J, 2015. Evaluation of spring barley performance by biplot analysis. Cereal Res Commun 43 (4): 692-703. https://doi.org/10.1556/0806.43.2015.018

Reynolds M, Foulkes MJ, Slafer GA, Berry P, Parry MA, Snape JW, Angus WJ, 2009. Raising yield potential in wheat. J Exp Bot 60: 1899-1918. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erp016

Royo C, Villegas D, Rharrabti Y, Blanco R, Martos V, Garcia del Moral LF, 2006. Grain growth and yield formation of durum wheat grown at contrasting latitudes and water regimes in a Mediterranean environment. Cereal Res Commun 34: 1021-1028. https://doi.org/10.1556/CRC.34.2006.2-3.233

Sadras VO, 2007. Evolutionary aspects of the trade-off between seed size and number in crops. Field Crop Res 100: 125-138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2006.07.004

Sadras VO, Slafer GA, 2012. Environmental modulation of yield components in cereals: heritabilities reveal a hierarchy of phenotypic plasticities. Field Crop Res 127: 215-224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2011.11.014

Slafer GA, 2003. Genetic basis of yield as viewed from a crop physiologist's perspective. Ann Appl Biol 142: 117-128. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.2003.tb00237.x

Slafer GA, Savin R, Sadras VO, 2014. Coarse and fine regulation of wheat yield components in response to genotype and environment. Field Crop Res 157: 71-83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2013.12.004

Smith JB, Schneider SH, Oppenheimer M, Yohe GW, Hare W, Mastrandrea MD et al., 2009. Assessing dangerous climate change through an update of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) "reasons for concern". P Nat Acad Sci USA 106: 4133-4137. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0812355106

Ugarte C, Calderini DF, Slafer GA, 2007. Grain weight and grain number responsiveness to pre-anthesis temperature in wheat, barley and triticale. Field Crop Res 100: 240-248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2006.07.010

van Ittersum MK, Cassman KG, Grassini P, Wolf J, Tittonell P, Hochman Z, 2013. Yield gap analysis with local to global relevance - A review. Field Crops Res 143: 4-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2012.09.009

Xie Q, Mayes S, Sparkes DL, 2015. Carpel size, grain filling, and morphology determine individual grain weight in wheat. J Exp Bot 66: 6715-6730. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erv378

Yan W, Molnar S, Fregeau-Reid J, McElroy A, Tinker NA, 2007. Associations among oat traits and their responses to the environment in North America. J Crop Imprv 20: 1-29. https://doi.org/10.1300/J411v20n01_01

Zadoks JC, Chang TT, Konzak CF, 1974. A decimal code for the growth stage of cereals. Weed Res 14: 415-421. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3180.1974.tb01084.x

Zhou B, Sanz-Sáez A, Elazab A, Shen T, Sánchez-Bragado R, Bort J, Serret MD, Araus JL, 2014. Physiological traits contributed to the recent increase in yield potential of winter wheat from Henan Province, China. J Integr Plant Biol 56: 492-504. https://doi.org/10.1111/jipb.12148




DOI: 10.5424/sjar/2018163-11388