Development of an index based on ultrasonographic measurements for the objective appraisal of body condition in Andalusian horses

Tamara Martin-Gimenez, Carla N. Aguirre-Pascasio, Ignacio de Blas

Abstract


Body condition scoring (BCS) is an indirect measure of the level of subcutaneous fat; however, by measuring the subcutaneous fat thicknesses (SFT), the precision of the degree of fatness assessment is improved. The aims were: 1) to develop an alternative body fat scoring index (BFSI) based on ultrasonographic measurements; 2) to assess the agreement between BCS and the new index applied to Andalusian horses; 3) to adjust the BCS cut-off values (if necessary) for overweight and obesity in this breed. One hundred and sixty-six Andalusian horses were included in this cross sectional study. On each horse, BCS, body fat percentage (BF%) and ultrasonography of SFT at localized deposits were evaluated. According to BFSI five possible body categories were established. Only one horse (0.6%) was classified as emaciated, 9.0% as thin, 74.7% as normal, 11.4% as overweight and 4.2% as obese. Despite higher BCS and SFT values were observed compared to other breeds, most of the horses evaluated presented a normal body condition under the new BFSI. BCS and BFSI were significantly associated (p<0.001), however, the concordance was low (weighted Cohen’s kappa coefficient, 0.262 ± 0.071; p=0.004). Using BFSI, obese horses had significantly greater BF% than the rest of categories (p<0.001). BCS showed a good diagnostic accuracy for detection overweight (AUC = 0.759 ± 0.055; p<0.001) and obese (AUC = 0.878 ± 0.050; p=0.001) horses; redefining the cut-off values for overweight and obesity condition as 7.5/9 and 8.5/9 respectively in Andalusian horses.


Keywords


ultrasonography; subcutaneous fat deposits; objective score; adiposity; obesity; index

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adams AA, Katepalli MP, Kohler K, Reedy SE, Stilz JP, Vick MM, Fitzgerald BP, Lawrence LM, Horohov DW, 2009. Effect of body condition, body weight and adiposity on inflammatory cytokine responses in old horses. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 127: 286-294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2008.10.323

Alapati A, Kapa SR, Jeepalyam S, Rangappa SM, Yemireddy KR, 2010. Development of the body condition score system in Murrah buffaloes: validation through ultrasonic assessment of body fat reserves. J Vet Sci 11: 1-8. https://doi.org/10.4142/jvs.2010.11.1.1

Argo C, 2009. Appraising the portly pony: Body condition and adiposity. Vet J 179: 158-160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2008.04.007

Argo CM, Curtis GC, Grove-White D, Dugdale AH, Barfoot CF, Harris PA, 2012. Weight loss resistance: A further consideration for the nutritional management of obese Equidae. Vet J 194: 179-188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2012.09.020

Azzaro G, Caccamo M, Ferguson JD, Battiato S, Farinella GM, Guarnera GC, Puglisi G, Petriglieri R, Licitra G, 2011. Objective estimation of body condition score by modeling cow body shape from digital images. J Dairy Sci 94: 2126-2137. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3467

Bamford NJ, Potter SJ, Harris PA, Bailey SR, 2013. Breed differences in insulin sensitivity and insulinemic responses to oral glucose in horses and ponies of moderate body condition score. Domest Anim Endocrinol 47: 101-107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.domaniend.2013.11.001

Banse HE, McFarlane D, 2014. Comparison of three methods for evaluation of equine insulin regulation in horses of varied body condition score. J Equine Vet Sci 34: 742-748. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2014.01.001

Bewley JM, Peacock AM, Lewis O, Boyce RE, Roberts DJ, Coffey MP, Kenyon SJ, Schutz MM, 2008. Potential for estimation of body condition scores in dairy cattle from digital images. J Dairy Sci 91: 3439-3453. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0836

Buff PR, Johnson PJ, Wiedmeyer CE, Ganjam VK, Messer IV NT, Keisler DH, 2006. Modulation of leptin, insulin, and growth hormone in obese pony mares under chronic nutritional restriction and supplementation with ractopamine hydrochloride. Vet Ther 7: 64-72.

Burkholder WJ, 2000. Use of body condition scores in clinical assessment of the provision of optimal nutrition. J Am Vet Med Assoc 217: 650-654. https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.2000.217.650

Carroll CL, Huntington PJ, 1988. Body condition scoring and weight estimation of horses. Equine Vet J 20: 41-45. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1988.tb01451.x

Carter RA, Geor RJ, Staniar WB, Cubitt TA, Harris PA, 2009a. Apparent adiposity assessed by standardised scoring systems and morphometric measurements in horses and ponies. Vet J 179: 204-210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2008.02.029

Carter RA, McCutcheon LJ, George LA, Smith TL, Frank N, Geor RJ, 2009b. Effects of diet-induced weight gain on insulin sensitivity and plasma hormone and lipid concentrations in horses. Am J Vet Res 70: 1250-1258. https://doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.70.10.1250

Carter RA, Dugdale AH, 2013. Assessment of body condition and bodyweight. In: Equine Applied and Clinical Nutrition; Geor R, Harris PA, Coenen M (eds.). pp: 393-404. Elsevier Ltd, Edinburgh. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-7020-3422-0.00022-5

Cartmill JA, Thompson DL, Del Vecchio RP, Storer WA, Crowley JC, 2006. Leptin secretion in horses: Effects of dexamethasone, gender, and testosterone. Domest Anim Endocrinol 31: 197-210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.domaniend.2005.10.006

Clingerman KJ, Summers L, 2005. Development of a body condition scoring system for nonhuman primates using Macaca mulatta as a model. Lab Anim 34: 31-36. https://doi.org/10.1038/laban0505-31

Cohen J, 1968. Weighted kappa: Nominal scale agreement provision for scaled disagreement or partial credit. Psychol Bull 70: 213-220. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0026256

Daniel WW, 2000. Biostatistics: a foundation for analysis in the health sciences (7th ed). Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Das H, Paksoy Z, 2015. Novel geometrical model for assessing body condition in dairy cattle. Ind J Anim Res 49: 303-307. https://doi.org/10.5958/0976-0555.2015.00051.5

Domecq JJ, Skidmore AL, Lloyd JW, Kaneene JB, 1994. Validation of body condition scores with ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous fat of dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 78: 2308-2313. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(95)76857-6

Donaldson MT, McFarlane D, Jorgensen AJR, Beech J, 2004. Correlation between plasma α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone concentration and body mass index in healthy horses. Am J Vet Res 65: 1469-1473. https://doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.2004.65.1469

Dugdale AH, Curtis GC, Harris PA, Argo CM, 2011a. Assessment of body fat in the pony: Part I. Relationships between the anatomical distribution of adipose tissue, body composition and body condition. Equine Vet J 43: 552-561. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.2010.00330.x

Dugdale AH, Curtis GC, Cripps PJ, Harris PA, Argo CM, 2011b. Effects of season and body condition on appetite, body mass and body composition in ad libitum fed pony mares. Vet J 190: 329-337. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2010.11.009

Dugdale AH, Grove-White D, Curtis GC, Harris PA, Argo CM, 2012. Body condition scoring as a predictor of body fat in horses and ponies. Vet J 194: 173-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2012.03.024

Edmonson AJ, Lean IJ, Weaver LD, Farver T, Webster G, 1989. A body condition scoring chart for Holstein dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 72: 68-78. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(89)79081-0

Fleiss J, 1986. Reliability of measurements. In: The design and analysis of clinical experiments. pp: 1-32. John Wiley & Sons, NY.

Frank N, Elliott SB, Brandt LE, Keisler DH, 2006. Physical characteristics, blood hormone concentrations, and plasma lipid concentrations in obese horses with insulin resistance. J Am Vet Med Assoc 228: 1383-1390. https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.228.9.1383

Frankenfield DC, Rowe WA, Cooney RN, Smith JS, Becker D, 2001. Limits of body mass index to detect obesity and predict body composition. Nutrition 17: 26-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0899-9007(00)00471-8

Gentry LR, Thompson DL, Gentry GT, Davis KA, Godke RA, Cartmill JA, 2002. The relationship between body condition, leptin, and reproductive and hormonal characteristics of mares during the seasonal anovulatory period. J Anim Sci 80: 2695-2703. https://doi.org/10.2527/2002.80102695x

Gentry LR, Thompson DL, Gentry GT, Del Vecchio RP, Davis KA, Del Vecchio PM, 2004. The relationship between body condition score and ultrasonic fat measurements in mares of high versus low body condition. J Equine Vet Sci 24: 198-203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2004.04.009

Geor RJ, Harris PA, 2013. Obesity. In: Equine applied and clinical nutrition; Geor R, Harris PA, Coenen M (eds.). pp: 487-502. Saunders Elsevier, Edinburgh. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-7020-3422-0.00028-6

Gerhart KL, White RG, Cameron RD, Russell DE, 1996. Estimating fat content of caribou from body condition scores. J Wildl Manage 60: 713-718. https://doi.org/10.2307/3802369

Greiner M, Pfeiffer D, Smith RD, 2000. Principles and practical application of the receiver-operating characteristic analysis for diagnostic tests. Prev Vet Med 45: 23-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-5877(00)00115-X

Halachmi I, Klopčič M, Polak P, Roberts DJ, Bewley JM, 2013. Automatic assessment of dairy cattle body condition score using thermal imaging. Comput Electron Agric 99: 35-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compag.2013.08.012

Henneke DR, Potter GD, Kreider JL, Yeates BF, 1983. Relationship between condition score, physical measurements and body fat percentage in mares. Equine Vet J 15: 371-372. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1983.tb01826.x

Hoffman RM, Boston RC, Stefanovski D, Kronfeld DS, Harris PA, 2003. Obesity and diet affect glucose dynamics and insulin sensitivity in Thoroughbred geldings. J Anim Sci 81: 2333-2342. https://doi.org/10.2527/2003.8192333x

Johnson PJ, 2002. The equine metabolic syndrome: peripheral Cushing's syndrome. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 18: 271-293. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-0739(02)00006-8

Kane RA, Fisher M, Parrett D, Lawrence LM, Kane RA, Fisher M, Parrett D, Lawrence LM, 1987. Estimating fatness in horses. Proc 10th Equine Nutr and Physiol Symp, pp: 127-131.

Kearns CF, McKeever KH, Malinowski K, Struck MB, Abe T, 2001. Chronic administration of therapeutic levels of clenbuterol acts as a repartitioning agent. J Appl Physiol 91: 2064-2070.

Kearns CF, McKeever KH, Abe T, 2002a. Overview of horse body composition and muscle architecture: implications for performance. Vet J 164: 224-234. https://doi.org/10.1053/tvjl.2001.0702

Kearns CF, McKeever KH, John-Alder H, Abe T, Brechue WF, 2002b. Relationship between body composition, blood volume and maximal oxygen uptake. Equine Vet J (Suppl) 34: 485-490. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.2002.tb05470.x

Kearns CF, McKeever KH, Roegner V, Brady SM, Malinowski K, 2006. Adiponectin and leptin are related to fat mass in horses. Vet J 172: 460-465. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2005.05.002

Kienzle E, Schramme SC, 2004. Body condition scoring and prediction of body weight in adult warm blooded horses. Pferdeheilkunde 20: 517-524. https://doi.org/10.21836/PEM20040604

Kohnke JR, 1992. Feeding and nutrition: the making of a champion. Birubi Pacific, Australia.

Laflamme D, 1997. Development and validation of a body condition score system for cats: A clinical tool. Feline Pract 25: 13-18.

Lau DC, Douketis JD, Morrison KM, Hramiak IM, Sharma AM, Ur E, 2007. Canadian clinical practice guidelines on the management and prevention of obesity in adults and children. Can Med Assoc J 176 (Suppl): 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.061409

Martin-Gimenez T, Aguirre-Pascasio CN, de Blas I, 2016. Ultrasonographic assessment of regional fat distribution and its relationship with body condition in an easy keeper horse breed. J Equine Vet Sci 39: 69-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2016.01.010

Mawby DI, Bartges JW, d'Avignon A, Laflamme DP, Moyers TD, Cottrell T, 2004. Comparison of various methods for estimating body fat in dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 40: 109-114. https://doi.org/10.5326/0400109

Morfeld KA, Lehnhardt J, Alligood C, Bolling J, Brown JL, 2014. Development of a body condition scoring index for female African elephants validated by ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous fat. PLoS One 9: e93802. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0093802

Pfeifer LF, Castro NA, Neves PM, Cestaro JP, Siqueira LG, 2017. Development and validation of an objective method for the assessment of body condition scores and selection of beef cows for timed artificial insemination. Livest Sci 197: 82-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2017.01.011

Pond C, 1998. Introduction to fatty tissues. In: The fats of life; Pond C (ed.). pp: 27-75, Cambridge Univ Press, UK. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511584633.003

Potter SJ, Bamford NJ, Harris PA, Bailey SR, 2013. Comparison of weight loss, with or without dietary restriction and exercise, in Standardbreds, Andalusians and mixed breed ponies. J Equine Vet Sci 33: 339. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2013.03.048

Pratt-Phillips SE, Owens KM, Dowler LE, Cloninger MT, 2010. Assessment of resting insulin and leptin concentrations and their association with managerial and innate factors in horses. J Equine Vet Sci 30: 127-133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2010.01.060

Quaresma M, Payan-Carreira R, Silva SR, 2013. Relationship between ultrasound measurements of body fat reserves and body condition score in female donkeys. Vet J 197: 329-334. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2012.12.031

Ragnarsson S, Jansson A, 2011. Comparison of grass haylage digestibility and metabolic plasma profile in Icelandic and Standardbred horses. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 95: 273-279. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2010.01049.x

Reed DR, McDaniel AH, Li X, Tordoff MG, Bachmanov AA, 2006. Quantitative trait loci for individual adipose depot weights in C57BL/6ByJ x 129P3/J F2 mice. Mamm Genome 17: 1065-1077. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00335-006-0054-2

Scheibe KM, Streich WJ, 2003. Annual rhythm of body weight in Przewalski horses (Equus ferus przewalskii). Biol Rhythm Res 34: 383-395. https://doi.org/10.1076/brhm.34.4.383.26227

Silva SR, Cadavez VP, 2012. Real-time ultrasound (RTU) imaging methods for quality control of meats. In: Computer vision technology in the food and beverage industries; Sun DW (ed.). pp: 277-329. Woodhead Publ, Cambridge, UK. https://doi.org/10.1533/9780857095770.3.277

Stephenson TR, Hundertmark KJ, Schwartz CC, Van Ballenberghe V, 1998. Predicting body fat and body mass in moose with ultrasonography. Can J Zool Can Zool 76: 717-722. https://doi.org/10.1139/z97-248

Thatcher CD, Pleasant RS, Geor RJ, Elvinger F, 2012. Prevalence of overconditioning in mature horses in southwest Virginia during the summer. J Vet Intern Med 26: 1413-1418. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2012.00995.x

Thrusfield M, 2005. Veterinary Epidemiology (3rd edition). Blackwell Science Ltd.

Turner SP, Hess TM, Treiber K, Mello EB, Souza BG, Almeida FQ, 2011. Comparison of insulin sensitivity of horses adapted to different exercise intensities. J Equine Vet Sci 31: 645-649. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2011.05.006

Ungru J, Coenen M, Vervuert I, Bluher M, Raila J, Boston R, 2012. Effects of body weight reduction on blood adipokines and subcutaneous adipose tissue adipokine mRNA expression profiles in obese ponies. Vet Rec 6: 499-502. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.100911

Vick MM, Sessions DR, Murphy BA, Kennedy EL, Reedy SE, Fitzgerald BP, 2006. Obesity is associated with altered metabolic and reproductive activity in the mare: Effects of metformin on insulin sensitivity and reproductive cyclicity. Reprod Fertil Dev 18: 609-617. https://doi.org/10.1071/RD06016

Vick MM, Adams AA, Murphy BA, Sessions DR, Horohov DW, Cook RF, Shelton BJ, Fitzgerald BP, 2007. Relationships among inflammatory cytokines, obesity, and insulin sensitivity in the horse. J Anim Sci 85: 1144-1155. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2006-673

Wagner EL, Tyler PJ, 2011. A comparison of weight estimation methods in adult horses. J Equine Vet Sci 31: 706-710. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2011.05.002

Waller CA, Thompson DL, Cartmill JA, Storer WA, Huff NK, 2006. Reproduction in high body condition mares with high versus low leptin concentrations. Theriogenology 66: 923-928. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2006.02.033

Westervelt RG, Stouffer JR, Hintz HF, Schryver HF, 1976. Estimating fatness in horses and ponies. J Anim Sci 43: 781-785. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1976.434781x

Wilson EB, 1927. Probable inference, the law of succession, and statistical inference. J Am Stat Assoc 22: 209-212. https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1927.10502953




DOI: 10.5424/sjar/2017154-11732