Effects of antioxidant activity of black maize in corn borer larval survival and growth

Pedro Revilla, Pilar Soengas, Rosa A. Malvar

Abstract


Antioxidant activity (AA) of black maize kernels attributed mainly to polyphenols has potential effects on health and possible defense functions against pests. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of maize polyphenols and AA in survival and growth of larvae of the corn borer Sesamia nonagrioides. We carried out two bioassays with S. nonagrioides larvae grown in artificial diet with white and black maize flour and control. AA was tested spectrophotometrically on each of the diets using four methods. The different measurements of AA were strongly correlated, indicating that these measurements were highly reliable. The control diet, the white-maize-diet and black-maize-diet with vitamin C and without H2O2 had the highest antioxidant activity. The processing of the maize flour altered the AA of the polyphenols. The control treatment had the highest AA, and vitamin C had stronger AA than polyphenols. AA of vitamin C hides that of polyphenols probably due to environmental effects, dilution of polyphenols, or interactions with other substances. Larvae grew more in the control diet and the addition of H2O2 had not significant effects on weight. There was a weak rank correlation between AA and larval weight. Mortality was lowest for the control diet with or without H2O2 followed by white maize with or without H2O2 and black maize without H2O2. Effects of polyphenols depend on other substances that might interact with them. The results indicate that antioxidant activity has insecticide effects on young larvae and, as the larvae grow, antioxidants have positive effects on larvae.


Keywords


Zea mays L; polyphenols; anthocyanins; Sesamia nonagrioides

Full Text:

PDF HTML XML

References


Arnason JT, Gale J, Conilh BB, Sen A, Miller SS, Philogène BJR, Lambert JDH, Fulcher RG, Serratos JA, Minh JA, 1992. Role of phenolics in resistance of maize grain to the stored grain insects, Protstephanus trucantus (Horn) and Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch). J Stor Prod Res 28: 119-126. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-474X(92)90019-M

Bedini S, Bougherra HH, Flamini G, Cosci F, Belhamel K, Ascrizzi R, Conti B, 2016. Repellency of anethole- and estragole-type fennel essential oils against stored grain pests: the different twins. Bull Insectol 69: 149-157.

Benzie IFF, Strain JJ, 1996. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of ''antioxidant power'': the FRAP assay. Annals Biochem 239: 70-76. https://doi.org/10.1006/abio.1996.0292

Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C, 1995. Use of free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Lebens Wissenchaft Technol 28: 25-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0023-6438(95)80008-5

Butrón A, Malvar RA, Cartea ME, Ordás A, Velasco P, 1999. Resistance of maize inbreds to pink stem borer. Crop Sci 39: 102-107. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1999.0011183X003900010016x

Cantor A, 1997. Extending SAS survival analysis techniques for medical research. SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC, USA.

Cartea ME, Malvar RA, Revilla P, Ordás A, Álvarez A, 1994. Seasonal occurrence and response of maize inbred lines to pink stem borer in the northwest of Spain. Maydica 39: 191-196.

Cordero A, Malvar RA, Butrón A, Revilla P, Velasco P, Ordás A, 1998. Population dynamics and life-cycle of corn borers in South Atlantic European coast. Maydica 43: 5-12.

Costa-Arbulú C, Gianoli E, Gonzáles WL, Niemeyer HM, 2001. Feeding by the aphid Sipha flava produces a reddish spot on leaves of Sorghum halepense: an induced defense. J Chem Ecol 27: 273-283. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005676321251

De la Parra C, Serna Saldivar SO, Liu RH, 2007. Effect of processing on the phytochemical profiles and antioxidant capacity of corn for production of masa, tortillas, and tortilla chips. J Agric Food Chem 55: 4177-4183. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf063487p

Del Pozo-Insfran D, Brenes H, Serna Saldivar SO, Talcott ST, 2006. Polyphenolic and antioxidant content of white and blue corn (Zea mays L.) products. Food Res Int 39: 696-703. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2006.01.014

Dreyer DL, Reese JC, Kenneth CJ, 1981. Aphid feeding deterrents in sorghum bioassay isolation and characterization. J Chem Ecol 7: 273-284. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00995750

Farinós GP, de la Poza M, Hernández-Crespo P, Ortego F, Castañera P, 2004. Resistance monitoring of field populations of the corn borers Sesamia nonagrioides and Ostrinia nubilalis after 5 years of Bt maize cultivation in Spain. Entomol Experim Appl 110: 23-30. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0013-8703.2004.00116.x

Garcia-Lara S, Bergvinson DJ, 2014. Phytochemical and nutraceutical changes during recurrent selection for storage pest resistance in tropical maize. Crop Sci 54: 2423-2432. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2014.03.0223

Harris MK, 1979. Arthropod-plant interactions related to agriculture, emphasizing host plant resistance. In: Biology and breeding for resistance to arthropods and pathogens in agricultural plants; Harris MK (Ed.). pp: 23-51. Texas A & M Univ, College Station, TX, USA.

Huang D, Ou B, Prior R, 2005. The chemistry behind antioxidant capacity assays. J Agric Food Chem 53: 1841-1856. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf030723c

Karageorgou P, Buschmann C, Manetas Y, 2008. Red leaf color as a warning signal against insect herbivory: honest or mimetic? Flora-morphology, distribution. Funct Ecol Plants 203: 648-652. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2007.10.006

Kusznierewicz B, Bartoszek A, Wolska L, Drzewiecki J, Gorinstein S, 2008. Partial characterization of white cabbages (Brassica oleracea var capitata f alba) from different regions by glucosinolates, bioactive compounds, total antioxidant activities and proteins. Food Sci Technol 41: 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2007.02.007

Larue P, 1984. La sesamie du maïs (Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.). In Degats et actualisation de lutte. Défense Végétaux 227: 163-181.

Lev-Yadun S, Kevin SG, 2008. Role of anthocyanins in plant defence. In: Anthocyanins; Winefield C, Davies K & Gould K (Eds.), pp: 22-28. Springer, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-77335-3_2

Li J, Walker CE, Faubion JM, 2011. Acidulant and oven type affect total anthocyanin content of blue corn cookies. J Sci Food Agric 91: 38-43. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4173

Littell RC, Milliken GA, Stroup WW, Wolfinger RD, 1996. SAS system for mixed models. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.

López-Martínez LX, Parkin KL, Garcia HS, 2011. Phase II-inducing, polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity of corn (Zea mays l.) from phenotypes of white, blue, red and purple colors processed into masa and tortillas. Plant Food Hum Nutr 66: 41-47. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-011-0210-z

López-Martínez LX, Parkin KL, Garcia HS, 2012. Effect of processing of corn for production of masa, tortillas and tortilla chips on the scavenging capacity of reactive nitrogen species. Int J Food Sci Technol 47: 1321-1327. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2012.02976.x

Malvar RA, Cartea ME, Revilla P, Ordás A, Álvarez A, Mansilla JP, 1993. Sources of resistance to pink stem borer and European corn borer in maize. Maydica 38: 313-319.

Miller NJ, Rice-Evans CA, 1997. Factors influencing the antioxidant activity determined by the ABTS radical cation assay. Free Rad Res 26: 195-199. https://doi.org/10.3109/10715769709097799

Nesci A, Montemarani A, Passone MA, Etcheverry M, 2012. Insecticidal activity of synthetic antioxidants, natural phytochemicals, and essential oils against an Aspergillus section Flavi vector (Oryzaephilus surinamensis L.) in microcosm. J Pest Sci 84: 107-115. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-010-0333-2

Ordás B, Butrón A, Soengas P, Ordás A, Malvar RA, 2002. Antibiosis of the pith maize to Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J Econ Entomol 95: 1044-1048. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/95.5.1044

Petroni K, Pilu R, Tonelli C, 2014. Anthocyanins in corn: a wealth of genes for human health. Planta 240: 901-911. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00425-014-2131-1

Rao MV, Paliyath G, Ormrod DP, Murr DP, Watkins CB, 1997. lnfluence of salicylic acid on H202 production, oxidative stress, and H2O2 metabolizing enzymes. Plant Physiol 115: 137-149. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.115.1.137

Rodríguez VM, Soengas P, Landa A, Ordás A, Revilla P, 2013. Effects of selection for color intensity on antioxidant capacity in maize (Zea mays L.). Euphytica 193: 339-345. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-013-0924-0

Santiago R, Malvar RA, Baamonde MD, Revilla P, Souto XC, 2005. Free phenols in maize pith and their relationship with resistance to Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) attack. J Econ Entomol 98: 1349-1356. https://doi.org/10.1603/0022-0493-98.4.1349

Santiago R, Souto XC, Monetti L, Ordas B, Ordas A, Malvar RA, 2006. Effect of maize pith free phenols on larval growth and development of Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J Entomol 3: 281-289. https://doi.org/10.3923/je.2006.281.289

SAS, 2008. SAS® 9.2 Enhanced Logging Facilities. SAS Inst.Inc., Cary, NC, USA.

Schoonhoven LM, Jermy T, Loon van JJA, 1998. Insect-plant biology. From Physiology to evolution. Chapman Hall, London.

Serratos A, Arnason JT, Nozzolillo C, Lambert JDH, Philogène BJR, Fulcher G, Davidson K, Peacock L, Atkinson J, Morand P, 1987. Factors contributing to resistance of exotic maize populations to maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais. J Chem Ecol 13: 751-762. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01020157

Simmonds MSJ, 2003. Flavonoid-insect interactions: recent advances in our knowledge. Phytochemistry 64: 21-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(03)00293-0

Singleton VL, Rossi JA, 1965. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am J Enol Viticul 16: 144-158.

Soengas P. Cartea ME, Francisco M, Sotelo T, Velasco P, 2012. New insights into antioxidant activity of Brassica crops. Food Chem 134: 725-733. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.02.169

Sotelo T, Cartea ME, Velasco P, Soengas P, 2014. Identification of antioxidant capacity -related QTLs in Brassica oleracea. PLoS ONE 9 (9): e107290. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107290

Stonecipher LL, Hurley PS, Netzly DH, 1993. Effect of apigenidin on the growth of selected bacteria. J Chem Ecol 19: 1021-1027. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00992535

Swiatek M, Kielkiewicz M, Zagdanska B, 2014. Insect-resistant Bt-maize response to the short-term non-target mite-pest infestation and soil drought. Acta Physiol Plant 36: 2705-2715. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-014-1641-6

Velasco P, Revilla P, Monetti L, Butrón A, Ordás A, Malvar RA, 2007. Corn borers (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae; Crambidae) northwestern Spain: population dinamics and distribution. Maydica 52: 195-203.

Zhi-Xiang N, Jen-Wai C, Kuppusamy UR, 2011. Customized cooking method improves total antioxidant activity in selected vegetables. Int J Food Sci Nut 62: 158-163. https://doi.org/10.3109/09637486.2010.526931




DOI: 10.5424/sjar/2018161-11939