Descriptive epidemiology of endemic Classical Swine Fever in Cuba

Osvaldo Fonseca, Liani Coronado, Laymara Amarán, Carmen L. Perera, Yosdany Centelles, Damarys N. Montano, Pastor Alfonso, Octavio Fernández, Kleber R. Santoro, María T. Frías-Lepoureau, María I. Percedo

Abstract


In Cuba, Classical Swine Fever (CSF) has become an endemic disease since 1993 with several outbreaks each year despite the compulsory vaccination program implemented. To deepen the disease characterization is essential for improving the CSF control measures and to achieve its eradication. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of CSF occurrences in Cuba during a seven-year period within the endemic situation. Data on CSF occurrence from January 2010 to December 2016 were analyzed. The seven-year period shows a tendency of the number of affected premises to increase (r=0.31, p=0.005) over time (month). Directional distribution (1SD ellipse) indicated a great dispersion of affected premises by year across the country with a trend to a higher occurrence to the west. It was demonstrated by the negative correlation (r=-0.893, p=0.007) between the longitude of the mean center of the ellipses over the years. The Kernel density indicated that the disease was spatially distributed across the whole country, but four hot spots were found in the western (Pinar del Río and Artemisa) and eastern (Guantánamo and Holguín) regions. The clinical sign most frequently reported in affected premises was fever, followed by loss of appetite, conjunctivitis, and diarrhea. The most frequent observed clinical signs were non-specific, which complicates the disease recognition in the field. The obtained results have a practical importance for improving the efficiency of the CSF control program implemented in the country and contribute to enhance epidemiological surveillance taking into account the risk based principles.


Keywords


swine health; clinical signs; spatial distribution; temporal trend

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References


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DOI: 10.5424/sjar/2018162-12487