Comparison of growth performance and immune responses of broiler chicks reared under heat stress, cold stress and thermoneutral conditions

Ali Olfati, Ali Mojtahedin, Tayebeh Sadeghi, Mohsen Akbari, Felipe Martínez-Pastor

Abstract


This study was conducted to compare the effects of thermal stress on growth performance and some immunity variables of broiler chickens. Birds were randomly assigned to one of three thermal treatments as follows: cold stress (CS, 12±1°C), (b) heat stress (HS, 33±3 °C) and (c) thermoneutral (TN, 24±2 °C). Body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), water intake (WI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were recorded. In order to evaluate the primary and secondary humoral immune responses, two birds per replicate were intravenously administrated with a suspension of 7% sheep red blood cell (SRBC) at 28 and 35 days. The heat-stressed broiler chickens had lower FI (-14.90%), BWG (-25.71%) and higher FCR (+13.06%) in comparison to broiler chickens reared under TN condition (p<0.001) from 1 to 42 days of age. The cold-stressed broiler chickens showed lower FI (-22.05%), BWG (-38.32%) and higher FCR (+22.47%) in comparison to birds reared under TN conditions (p<0.001). Stressed birds (CS and HS) showed decreased antibody titer against SRBC, lymphocyte count and the relative weights of lymphoid organs and increased heterophil count, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio and the serum concentration of corticosterone, in comparison to birds in TN group (p<0.001). In conclusion, HS and CS conditions have similar negative effects on performance and immunity of broiler chickens.

Keywords


antibody titer; broiler chicken; immunity; thermal stress

Full Text:

PDF

References


AOAC, 2004. Official methods of analysis, 18th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.

Bartlett JR, Smith MO, 2003. Effects of different levels of zinc on the performance and immunocompetence of broilers under heat stress. Poult Sci 82: 1580-1588. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/82.10.1580

Blahova J, Dobsikova R, Strakova E, Suchy P, 2007. Effect of low environmental temperature on performance and blood system in broiler chickens (Gallus domesticus). Acta Vet Brno 76: 17-23. https://doi.org/10.2754/avb200776S8S017

Bozkurt M, Kucukvilmaz K, Catli AU, Cinar M, Bintas E, Coven F, 2012. Performance, egg quality, and immune response of laying hens fed diets supplemented with manna-oligosaccharide or an essential oil mixture under moderate and hot environmental conditions. Poult Sci 91: 1379-1386. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2011-02023

Campo JL, Prieto MT, Dávila SG, 2008. Effects of housing system and cold stress on heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, fluctuating asymmetry, and tonic immobility duration of chickens. Poult Sci 87: 621-626. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2007-00466

Collier SD, Wu WJ, Pruett SB, 1998. Endogenous glucocorticoids induced by a chemical stressor (ethanol) cause apoptosis in the spleen in B6C3F1female mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 148: 176-182. https://doi.org/10.1006/taap.1997.8324

Collins SM, Surette M, Bercik P, 2012. The interplay between the intestinal microbiota and the brain. Nature Rev Microbiol 10: 735-742. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro2876

Deng W, Dong XF, Tong JM, Zhang Q, 2012. The probiotic Bacillus licheniformis ameliorates heat stress-induced impairment of egg production, gut morphology, and intestinal mucosal immunity in laying hens. Poult Sci 91: 575-582. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2010-01293

Dhabhar FS, 2002. A hassle a day may keep the doctor away: stress and the augmentation of immune function. Integ Compar Biol 42: 556-564. https://doi.org/10.1093/icb/42.3.556

Felver-Gant JN, Mack LA, Dennis RL, Eicher SD, Cheng HW, 2012. Genetic variations alter physiological responses following heat stress in 2 strains of laying hens. Poult Sci 91: 1542-1551. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2011-01988

Feng JH, Zhang MH, Zheng SS, Xie P, Ma AP, 2008. Effects of high temperature on multiple variables of broilers in vitro and in vivo. Poult Sci 87: 2133-2139. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2007-00358

Fu J, Liu C, Zhang Z, Xing M, Xu S, 2013. Influence of inflammatory pathway markers on oxidative stress induced by cold stress in intestine of quails. Res Vet Sci 95: 495-501. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2013.05.006

Habibian M, Ghazi S, Moeini M, Abdolmohammadi AR, 2014. Effects of dietary selenium and vitamin E on immune response and biological blood of broilers reared under thermo neutral or heat stress conditions. Int J Biometeorol 58: 741-752. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-013-0654-y

Hu X, Guo Y, 2008.Corticosterone administration alters small intestinal morphology and function of broiler chickens. Asian-Aust J Anim Sci 21: 1773-1778. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2008.80167

Iyasere O, Beard AP, Guy JH, Bateson M, 2017. Elevated levels of the stress hormone, corticosterone, cause 'pessimistic' judgment bias in broiler chickens. Sci Report 7: 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-07040-y

Lin H, Decuypere E, Buyse J, 2004. Oxidative stress induced by corticosterone administration in broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) 1. Chronic exposure. Comp Biochem Physiol 139: 737-744. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2004.09.013

Mishra KP, Yadav AP, Shweta Chanda S, Majumdar D, Ganju L, 2011. Serum levels of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM) in Antarctic summer expeditioners and their relationship with seasickness. Cell Immunol 271: 29-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cellimm.2011.05.018

Moeini MM, Bahrami A, Ghazi S, Targhibi MR, 2012. The effect of different levels of organic and inorganic chromium supplementation on production performance, carcass traits and some blood of broiler chicken under heat stress condition. Biol Trace Elem Res 144: 715-724. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-011-9116-8

Mujahid A, Furuse M, 2009. Oxidative damage in different tissues of neonatal chicks exposed to low environmental temperature. Compar Biochem Physiol 152: 604-608. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2009.01.011

Niu ZY, Liu FZ, Yan QL, Li WC, 2009a. Effects of different levels of vitamin E on growth performance and immune responses of broilers under heat stress. Poult Sci 88: 2101-2107. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2009-00220

Niu ZY, Wei F, Liu FZ, Qin XG, Min YN, Gao YP, 2009b. Dietary vitamin A can improve immune function in heat-stressed broiler. Animal 3: 1442-1448. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731109990358

NRC, 1994. Nutrient requirements of poultry, 9th edn. National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington.

Onderci M, Sahin N, Sahin K, Kilic N, 2003. Antioxidant properties of chromium and zinc: in vivo effects on digestibility, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant vitamins, and some minerals under a low ambient temperature. Biol Trace Elem Res 92: 139-150. https://doi.org/10.1385/BTER:92:2:139

Post J, Rebel JMJ, ter Huurne AAHM, 2003. Physiological effects of elevated plasma corticosterone concentrations in broiler chickens. An alternative means by which to assess the physiological effects of stress. Poult Sci 82: 1313-1318. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/82.8.1313

Prieto MT, Campo JL, 2010. Effect of heat and several additives related to stress levels on fluctuating asymmetry, heterophil: lymphocyte ratio, and tonic immobility duration in White Leghorn chicks. Poult Sci 89: 2071-2077. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2010-00716

Quinteiro-Filho WM, Gomes AV, Pinheiro ML, Ribeiro A, Ferraz-de-Paula V, Astolfi-Ferreira CS, Ferreira AJ, Palermo-Neto J, 2012. Heat stress impairs performance and induces intestinal inflammation in broiler chickens infected with Salmonella enteritidis. Avi Pathol 41: 421-427. https://doi.org/10.1080/03079457.2012.709315

Quinteiro-Filho WM, Calefi AS, Cruz DSG, Aloia TPA, Zager A, Astolfi-Ferreira CS, Piantino Ferreira JA, Sharif S, Palermo-Neto J, 2017. Heat stress decreases expression of the cytokines, avian β-defensins 4 and 6 and Toll-like receptor 2 in broiler chickens infected with Salmonella enteritidis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 186: 19-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2017.02.006

Sahin N, Onderci M, Sahin K, 2002. Effects of dietary chromium and zinc on egg production, egg quality and some blood metabolites of laying hens reared under low ambient temperature. Biol Trace Elem Res 85: 47-58. https://doi.org/10.1385/BTER:85:1:47

SAS Inst Inc, 2003. SAS user's guide. Release 8.2. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.

Shini S, Kaiser P, Shini A, Bryden WL, 2008. Differential alterations in ultrastructural morphology of chicken heterophils and lymphocytes induced by corticosterone and lipopolysaccharide. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 122: 83-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2007.10.009

Sohail MU, Hume ME, Byrd JA, Nisbet DJ, Ijaz A, Sohail A, Shabbir MZ, Rehman H, 2012. Effect of supplementation of prebiotic mannan-oligosaccharides and probiotic mixture on growth performance of broilers subjected to chronic heat stress. Poult Sci 91: 2235-2240. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2012-02182

Star L, Decuypere E, Parmentier HK, Kemp B, 2008. Effect of single or combined climatic and hygienic stress in four layer lines: 2. Endocrine and oxidative stress responses. Poult Sci 87: 1031-1038. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2007-00143

Stevenson P, Battaglia D, Bullon C, Carita A, 2014. Review of animal welfare legislation in the beef, pork, and poultry industries. Art. 7.10.4.2(a). FAO, Rome.

Tachibana T, Oikawa D, Takahashi H, Boswell T, Furuse M, 2007. The anorexiceffect of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone is mediated bycorticotrophin-releasing factor in chicks. Comp Biochem Physiol A: Mol Integr Physiol 147: 173-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2006.12.044

Tawfeek SS, AbdAlla Hassanin KM, Ibrahim Youssef IM, 2014. The effect of dietary supplementation of some antioxidants on performance, oxidative stress, and blood variables in broilers under natural summer conditions. J World Poult Res 4 (1): 10-19.

Tsutsayeva AA, Sevryukova LG, 2001. Effect of cold exposure on survival and stress protein expression of Drosophila melanogaster at different development stages. Cryo Lett 22: 145-150.

Yang J, Liu L, Sheikhahmadi A, Wang Y, Li C, Jiao H, Lin H, Song Z, 2015. Effects of corticosterone and dietary energy on immune function of broiler chickens. Plos One 10: 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119750

Yardibi H, Turkay G, 2008. The effects of vitamin E on the antioxidant system, egg production and egg quality in heat stressed laying hen. Turk J Vet Anim Sci 32: 319-325.

Zhang ZW, Lv ZH, Li JL, Li S, Xu SW, Wang XL, 2011. Effects of cold stress on nitric oxide in duodenum of chicks. Poult Sci 90: 1555-1561. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2010-01333

Zhang ZY, Jia GQ, Zuo JJ, Zhang Y, Lei J, Ren L, Feng DY, 2012. Effects of constant and cyclic heat stress on muscle metabolism and meat quality of broiler breast fillet and thigh meat. Poult Sci 91: 2931-2937. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2012-02255

Zhao FQ, Zhang ZW, Qu JP, Yao HD, Li M, Li S, Xu SW, 2014. Cold stress induces antioxidants and Hsps in chicken immune organs. Cell Stress Chap 19: 635-648.

Zulkifli I, Sti Nor Azah A, 2004. Fear and stress reactions and the performance of commercial broiler chickens subjected to regular pleasant and unpleasant contacts with human being. Appl Anim Behav Sci 88: 77-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2004.02.014




DOI: 10.5424/sjar/2018162-12753