Milk yield, periparturient diseases and body condition score as factors affecting the risk of fetal losses in high-yielding Holstein cows

Miguel Mellado, Ulises Macías-Cruz, Leonel Avendaño-Reyes, Francisco G. Véliz, Leticia Gaytán, José E. García, Alvaro F. Rodríguez

Abstract


The objective of this study was to assess various risk factors affecting fetal losses in high-yielding Holstein cows in a hot environment. In a retrospective observational study, 14,384 records from Holstein cows from a large highly technified dairy herd in northern Mexico were used. Logistic multivariate multiple-group response model indicated that fetal losses between 43 and 260 days of pregnancy were 23.8%. Dry periods >60 d were associated (p<0.05) with 0.8 (confidence interval CI=0.8–0.9) times lower incidence of fetal losses compared to cows with dry periods <60 d. Cows with body condition score (BCS) >3 at calving and 15 days postpartum had about half the risk of suffering fetal losses than cows with BCS <3.0. Cows with peak milk yield >38 kg were 5.5 times more likely to have a fetal loss than cows with peak milk yield <38 kg (36.9 vs. 9.6%; p<0.01). The risk of fetal loss increased with 305-d milk yield >9,000 kg (OR=2.1) compared with cows with milk yield <9,000 kg. Retained placenta was (p<0.05) associated with 1.2 (CI=1.1–1.4) times higher fetal losses than cows without this reproductive disorder. Cows suffering premature parturition had 1.2 (CI=1.0–1.4) greater (p<0.05) risk of suffering fetal losses than cows with normal parturition. Cows with twin pregnancies had significantly increased chances of losing their fetuses than cows with a single fetus (31.1 vs. 15.9 p<0.01). A bimodal distribution of fetal losses was observed with peaks around 50 and 220 days of pregnancy. It was concluded that in this particular hot environment fetal losses were associated with high milk yield, low body energy reserves at calving, reduced dry periods, occurrence of retained placenta, twin pregnancies and premature calving.


Keywords


placental retention; abortion; dry period; premature calving; twining

Full Text:

PDF HTML XML

References


Anderson ML, 2007. Infectious causes of bovine abortion during mid- to late-gestation. Theriogenology 68: 474-486. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2007.04.001

Bertoni G, Trevisi E, Lombardelli R, 2009. Some new aspects of nutrition, health conditions and fertility of intensively reared dairy cows. Ital J Anim Sci 8: 491-518. https://doi.org/10.4081/ijas.2009.491

Carvalho PD, Souza, AH, Amundson MC, Hackbart KS, Fuenzalida MJ, Herlihy MM, Ayres H, Dresch AR, Vieira LM, Guenther JN, et al., 2014. Relationships between fertility and postpartum changes in body condition and body weight in lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 97: 3666-3683. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2013-7809

Chagas L, Bass J, Blache D, Burke C, Kay J, Lindsay D, Lucy M, Martin G, Meier S, Rhodes F, 2007. Invited Review: New perspectives on the roles of nutrition and metabolic priorities in the subfertility of high-producing dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 90: 4022-4032. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2006-852

Chebel RC, Santos JE, Reynolds JP, Cerri RL, Juchem SO, Overton M, 2004. Factors affecting conception rate after artificial insemination and pregnancy loss in lactating dairy cows. Anim Reprod Sci 84: 239-255. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2003.12.012

Damaso AF, Velasova M, Van Winden S, Chang YM, Guitian J, 2018. Occurrence of preterm calving in Great Britain and associations with milk production and reproductive performance in dairy cattle. Vet Rec Open 5: e000221. https://doi.org/10.1136/vetreco-2017-000221

Dobson H, Smith RF, Royal MD, Knight CH, Sheldon IM, 2007. The high producing dairy cow and its reproductive performance. Reprod Dom Anim 42: 17-23. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00906.x

Dubey JP, Buxton D, Wouda W, 2006. Pathogenesis of bovine neosporosis. J Comp Pathol 134: 267-289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcpa.2005.11.004

Dunlap KA, Brown JD, Keith AB, Satterfield MC, 2015. Factors controlling nutrient availability to the developing fetus in ruminants. J Anim Sci Biotechnol 6: 16-26. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40104-015-0012-5

Ferguson JD, Galligan DT, Thomsen N, 1994. Principal descriptor of body condition score in Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci 77: 2695-2703. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(94)77212-X

Flisikowski K, Venhoranta H, Nowacka-Woszuk J, Mckay SD, Flyckt A, Taponen J, Schnabel R, Schwarzenbacher H, Szczerbal I, Lohi H et al., 2010. A novel mutation in the maternally imprinted PEG3 domain results in a loss of MIMT1 expression and causes abortions and stillbirths in cattle Bos taurus. PLoS ONE 5: e15116. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015116

García-Ispierto I, López-Gatius F, Santolaria P, Yániz JL, Nogareda C, López-Béjar M, De Rensis F, 2006. Relationship between heat stress during the peri-implantation period and early fetal loss in dairy cattle. Theriogenology 65: 799-807. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2005.06.011

Grimard B, Freret S, Chevallier A, Pinto A, Ponsart C, Humblot P, 2006. Genetic and environmental factors influencing first service conception rate and late embryonic/foetal mortality in low fertility dairy herds. Anim Reprod Sci 91: 31-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2005.03.003

Grummer RR, 2008. Nutritional and management strategies for the prevention of fatty liver in dairy cattle. Vet J 176: 10-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.12.033

Hocquette JF, Bauchart D, 1999. Intestinal absorption, blood transport and hepatic and muscle metabolism of fatty acids in preruminant and ruminant animals. Reprod Nutr Dev 39: 27-48. https://doi.org/10.1051/rnd:19990102

Jolicoeur MS, Brito AF, Santschi DE, Pellerin D, Lefebvre D, Berthiaume R, Girard CL, 2014. Short dry period management improves peripartum ruminal adaptation in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 97: 7655-7667. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2014-8590

Jousan FD, Drost M, Hansen PJ, 2005. Factors associated with early and mid-to-late fetal loss in lactating and nonlactating Holstein cattle in a hot climate. J Anim Sci 83: 1017-1022. https://doi.org/10.2527/2005.8351017x

Klauck V, Machado G, Pazinato R, Radavelli WM, Santos DS, Berwaguer JC, Braunig P, Vogel F, Da Silva AS, 2016. Relation between Neospora caninum and abortion in dairy cows: Risk factors and pathogenesis of disease. Microb Pathogen 92: 46-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2015.12.015

Kuhn MT, Hutchison JL, Norman HD, 2006. Effects of length of dry period on yields of milk fat and protein, fertility and milk somatic cell score in the subsequent lactation of dairy cows. J Dairy Res 73: 154-162. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029905001597

Labèrnia J, López-Gatius F, Santolaria P, López-Béjar M, Rutllant J, 1996. Influence of management factors on pregnancy attrition in dairy cattle. Theriogenology 45: 1247-1253. https://doi.org/10.1016/0093-691X(96)00079-9

Lima FS, Bisinotto RS, Ribeiro ES, Greco LF, Ayres H, Favoreto MG, Carvalho MR, Galvão KN, Santos JE, 2013. Effects of 1 or 2 treatments with prostaglandin F₂α on subclinical endometritis and fertility in lactating dairy cows inseminated by timed artificial insemination. J Dairy Sci 96: 6480-6488. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2013-6850

López‐Gatius F, García‐Ispierto I, 2010. Ultrasound and endocrine findings that help to assess the risk of late embryo/early foetal loss by non‐infectious cause in dairy cattle. Reprod Domest Anim 45 (Suppl 3): 15-24. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0531.2010.01620.x

López-Gatius F, Santolaria P, Yániz J, Rutllant J, López-Béjar M, 2002. Factors affecting pregnancy loss from gestation day 38 to 90 in lactating dairy cows from a single herd. Theriogenology 57: 1251-1261. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0093-691X(01)00715-4

López-Gatius F, Szenci O, Bech-Sàbat G, García-Ispierto I, Serrano B, Santolaria P, Yániz J, 2009. Factors of non-infectious nature affecting late embryonic and early foetal loss in high producing dairy herds in northeastern Spain. Mag Allat Lap 131: 515-531.

López-Gatius F, Santolaria P, Yaniz JL, Garbayo JM, Hunter RHF, 2004. Timing of early foetal loss for single and twin pregnancies in dairy cattle. Reprod Dom Anim 39: 429-433. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0531.2004.00533.x

Macmillan K, Kastelic JP, Colazo MG, 2018. Update on multiple ovulations in dairy cattle. Animals 8 (5): 62. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8050062

Mader TL, Davis MS, Brown-Brandl T, 2006. Environmental factors influencing heat stress in feedlot cattle. J Anim Sci 84: 712-719. https://doi.org/10.2527/2006.843712x

Marai IFM, El-Darawany AA, Fadiel A, Abdel-Hafez MAM, 2007. Physiological traits as affected by heat stress in sheep-a review. Small Rumin Res 71: 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2006.10.003

McAllister MM, Björkman C, Anderson-Sprecher R, Rogers DG, 2000. Evidence of point-source exposure to Neospora caninum and protective immunity in a herd of beef cows. J Am Vet Med Assoc 217: 881-887. https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.2000.217.881

Mellado M, Garcia AM, Arellano-Reynoso B, Diaz-Aparicio E, Garcia JE, 2014. Milk yield and reproductive performance of brucellosis-vaccinated but seropositive Holstein cows. Trop Anim Health Prod 46: 391-397. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-013-0502-4

Mellado M, López R, de Santiago Á, Veliz FG, Macías-Cruz U, Avendaño-Reyes L, García JE, 2016. Climatic conditions, twining and frequency of milking as factors affecting the risk of fetal losses in high-yielding Holstein cows in a hot environment. Trop Anim Health Prod 48: 1247-1252. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-016-1084-8

NRC, 2001. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle, 7th Rev Ed. National Research Council, Nat Acad Press, Washington, DC.

Norman HD, Wright JR, Kuhn MT, Hubbard SM, Cole JB, Van Raden PM, 2009. Genetic and environmental factors that affect gestation length in dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 92: 2259-2269. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0982

Pinedo PJ, Melendez P, Villagomez-Cortes JA, Risco CA, 2009. Effect of high somatic cell counts on reproductive performance of Chilean dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 92: 1575-1580. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1783

Pontes GC, Monteiro PL Jr, Prata AB, Guardieiro MM, Pinto DA, Fernandes GO, Wiltbank MC, Santos JE, Sartori R, 2015. Effect of injectable vitamin E on incidence of retained fetal membranes and reproductive performance of dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 98: 2437-2449. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2014-8886

Rabiee AR, Macmillan KL, Schwarzenberger F, Wright PJ, 2002. Effects of level of feeding and progesterone dose on plasma and faecal progesterone in ovariectomized cows. Anim Reprod Sci 73: 185-195. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4320(02)00145-8

Regnault TRH, Orbus RJ, De-Vrijer B, Davidsen ML, Galan HL, Wilkening RB, Anthony RV, 2002. Placental expression of VEGF, PlGF and their receptors in a model of placental insufficiency-intrauterine growth restriction PI-IUGR. Placenta 23: 132-144. https://doi.org/10.1053/plac.2001.0757

Salinas MJA, Mora GJJ, Zárate RJJ, Riojas VVM, Hernández VG, Dávalos AG, Ramírez RR, Galán ALC, Ávalos RR, 2005. Frecuencia de anticuerpos contra Neospora caninum en ganado bovino del noreste de México. Vet Mex 36: 303-311.

Santos JEP, Villaseñor M, Depeters EJ, Robinson PH, Holmberg CH, 2003. Type of cottonseed and level of gossypol in diets of lactating dairy cows: plasma gossypol, health, and reproductive performance. J Dairy Sci 86: 892-905. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73672-8

Sheldon IM, Lewis GS, LeBlanc S, Gilbert RO, 2006. Defining postpartum uterine disease in cattle. Theriogenology 65: 1516-1530. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2005.08.021

Shoshani E, Rozen S, Doekes JJ, 2014. Effect of a short dry period on milk yield and content, colostrum quality, fertility, and metabolic status of Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci 97: 2909-2922. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2013-7733

Silva HM, Wilcox CJ, Thatcher WW, Becker RB, Morse D, 1992. Factors affecting days open, gestation length, and calving interval in Florida dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 75: 288-293. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(92)77764-9

Silva-Del-Río N, Colloton JD, Fricke PM, 2009. Factors affecting pregnancy loss for single and twin pregnancies in a high-producing dairy herd. Theriogenology 71: 1462-1471. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2009.01.013

Starbuck MJ, Dailey RA, Inskeep EK, 2004. Factors affecting retention of early pregnancy in dairy cattle. Anim Reprod Sci 84: 27-39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2003.12.009

Thurmond MC, Picanso JP, 1990. A surveillance system for bovine abortion. Prev Vet Med 8: 41-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-5877(90)90021-9

van Knegsel ATM, Remmelink GJ, Jorjong S, Fievez V, Kemp B, 2014. Effect of dry period length and dietary energy source on energy balance, milk yield, and milk composition of dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 97: 1499-1512. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2013-7391

Vieira-Neto A, Galvão KN, Thatcher WW, Santos JEP, 2017. Association among gestation length and health, production, and reproduction in Holstein cows and implications for their offspring. J Dairy Sci 100: 3166-3181. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2016-11867

Walsh SW, Williams EJ, Evans ACO, 2011. A review of the causes of poor fertility in high milk producing dairy cows. Anim Reprod Sci 123: 127-138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2010.12.001

Weber C, Hametner C, Tuchscherer A, Losand B, Kanitz E, Otten W, Singh SP, Bruckmaier RM, Becker F, Kanitz W, Hammon HM, 2013. Variation in fat mobilization during early lactation differently affects feed intake, body condition, and lipid and glucose metabolism in high-yielding dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 96: 165-180. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2012-5574

Weber C, Losand B, Tuchscherer A, Rehbock F, Blum E, Yang W, Bruckmaier RM, Sanftleben P, Hammon HM, 2015. Effects of dry period length on milk production, body condition, metabolites, and hepatic glucose metabolism in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 98: 1772-1785. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2014-8598

Wheelock JB, Rhoads RP, Vanbaale MJ, Sanders SR, Baumgard LH, 2010. Effects of heat stress on energetic metabolism in lactating Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci 93: 644-655. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2295

Yániz J, López-Gatius F, García-Ispierto I, Bech-Sàbat G, Serrano B, Nogareda C, Sánchez-Nadal J, Almería S, Santolaria P, 2010. Some factors affecting the abortion rate in dairy herds with high incidence of Neospora-associated abortions are different in cows and heifers. Reprod Dom Anim 45: 699-705. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0531.2008.01337.x




DOI: 10.5424/sjar/2019172-13206