Identification, pathogenicity and distribution of the causal agents of dieback in avocado orchards in Spain

Isabel Arjona-Girona, David Ruano-Rosa, Carlos J. López-Herrera

Abstract


An increased incidence of dieback from branches in several avocado orchards in southern Spain was observed in 2014. Surveys were conducted from May to October 2014, sampling the affected branches to isolate the causal agents. A total of 68 fungal isolates, recovered from ten avocado orchards, were identified, by morphological characterisation and DNA sequencing, as belonging to the genera: Neofusicoccum parvum (50%), Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (17.6%), Neofusicoccum luteum (16.2%), Neofusicoccum australe (13.2%), Neofusicoccum mediterraneum (1.5%) and Lasiodiplodia theobromae (1.5%). A decreasing level of virulence in artificial inoculations on avocado plants was observed in N. parvum, N. luteum, N. mediterraneum, N. australe, C. gloeosporioides and L. theobromae, there were significant differences among N. parvum and the rest of species of this genus, and significant differences were only observed between N. luteum and C. gloeosporioides. The geographical distribution of N. parvum and N. Luteum covers different areas, while C. gloeosporioides and N. australe are located only in the areas around Benamocarra and Vélez-Málaga (southern Spain), while N. mediterraneum and L. theobromae appear only occasionally. This is the first study of avocado branch cankers in Spain which identifies the causal agents and establishes their pathogenicity groups, with N. parvum as the most important causal agent of avocado dieback in this area.

Keywords


Botryosphaeriaceae; Lasiodiplodia; Neofusicoccum Colletotrichum Persea americana

Full Text:

PDF HTML XML

References


Akgül DS, Awan QN, 2016. First report of anthracnose and stem end rot diseases caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Neofusicoccum australe on avocado fruits in Turkey. Plant Dis 100: 1872. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-03-16-0279-PDN

Alama I, Maldonado E, Rodriguéz-Galvéz E, 2006. Lasiodiplodia theobromae afectando al cultivo del palto (Persea americana) en las condiciones de Piura-Perú. Universalia 11: 4-13.

Arjona-Girona I, López-Herrera CJ, 2016. First report of branch dieback in mango trees caused by Neofusicoccum parvum in Spain. Plant Dis 100: 2529. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-05-16-0596-PDN

Armengol J, Vicent A, Torn L, García-Figueres F, García-Jiménez J, 2001. Fungi associated with esca and grapevine declines in Spain: A three-year survey. Phytopathol Mediterr 40: 325-329. http://dx.doi.org/10.14601/Phytopathol_Mediterr-1621

Aroca A, Garcia-Figueres F, Bracamonte L, Luque J, Raposo R, 2006. A survey of trunk disease pathogens within rootstocks of grapevines in Spain. Eur J Plant Pathol 115: 195-202. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-006-9008-5

Auger J, Palma F, Pérez I, Esterio, M, 2013. First report of Neofusicoccum australe (Botryosphaeria australis), as a branch dieback pathogen of avocado trees in Chile. Plant Dis 97: 842. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-10-12-0980-PDN

Barradas C, Correia A, Alves A, 2013. First report of Neofusicoccum australe and N. luteum associated with canker and dieback of Quercus robur in Portugal. Plant Dis 97: 560-560. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-10-12-0955-PDN

Burbano-Figueroa O, Arcila A, Vasquez AM, Carrascal F, Salazar Pertuz K, Moreno-Moran M, Romero-Ferrer J, Pulgarin JA, 2018. First report of Bionectria pseudochroleuca causing dieback and wilting on avocado in the Serrania de Perijá, Colombia. Plant Dis 102: 238. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-01-17-0010-PDN

Carbone I, Kohn LM, 1999. A method for designing primer sets for speciation studies in filamentous ascomycetes. Mycol 91: 553-556. https://doi.org/10.2307/3761358

Castillo S, Borrero C, Castaño R, 2013. First report of canker disease caused by Neofusicoccum parvum and N. australe on blueberry bushes in Spain. Plant Dis 97: 1112. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-11-12-1048-PDN

Choi GH, Larson TG, Nuss DL, 1992. Molecular analysis of the laccase gene from the chestnut blight fungus and selective suppression of its expression in an isogenic hypovirulent strain. Plant Microbe Interact 5: 199-128. https://doi.org/10.1094/MPMI-5-119

Eskalen A, Faber B, Bianchi M, 2013. Spore trapping and pathogenicity of fungi in the Botryosphaeriaceae and Diaporthaceae associated with avocado branch canker in California. Plant Dis 97: 329-332. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-03-12-0260-RE

Glass NL, Donaldsons GC, 1995. Development of primer sets designed for use with the PCR to amplify conserved genes from filamentous infection due to Phaeoacremonium spp. J Clin Microbiol 41: 1332-1336.

González-Domínguez E, Alvés A, León M, Armengol J, 2017. Characterization of Botryosphaeriaceae species associated with diseased loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) in Spain. Plant Pathol 66: 77-89. https://doi.org/10.1111/ppa.12556

Gramaje D, Agustí-Brisach C, Pérez-Sierra A, Moralejo E, Olmo D, Mostert L, Damm U, Armengol J, 2012. Fungal trunk pathogens associated with wood decay of almond trees on Mallorca (Spain). Persoonia 28: 1-13. https://doi.org/10.3767/003158512X626155

McDonald V, Eskalen A, 2011. Botryosphaeriaceae species associated with avocado branch cankers in California. Plant Dis 95: 1465-1473. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-02-11-0136

McDonald V, Lynch S, Eskalen A, 2009. First report of Neofusicoccum australe, N. luteum, and N. parvum associated with avocado branch canker in California. Plant Dis 93: 967. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-93-9-0967B

Molina-Gayosso E, Silva-Rojas HV, García-Morales S, 2012. First report of black spots on avocado fruit caused by Neofusicoccum parvum in Mexico. Dis Notes 96: 287. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-08-11-0699

Montealegre JR, Ramírez M, Riquelme D, Armengol J, León M, Pérez LM, 2016. First report of Neofusicoccum australe in Chile causing avocado stem-end rot. Plant Dis 100: 2532. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-05-16-0738-PDN

Moral J, Muñoz-Díez C, González N, Trapero A, Michailides TJ, 2010. Characterization and pathogenicity of Botryosphaeriaceae species collected from olives and other hosts in Spain and California. Phytopathol 100: 1340-1351. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-12-09-0343

Moral J, Agustí-Brisach C, Pérez-Rodríguez M, Xaviér C, Raya MC, 2017. Identification of fungal species associated with branch dieback of olive and resistance of table cultivars to Neofusicoccum mediterraneum and Botryosphaeria dothidea. Plant Dis 101: 306-316. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-06-16-0806-RE

Palou L, Sánchez-Torres P, Montesinos-Herrero C, Taberner V, 2016. Incidence and etiology of postharvest fungal diseases of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. cv. 'Algerie') in Alacant province (Spain). Eur J Plant Pathol 146: 847-860. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-016-0964-0

Phillips AJL, 2006. The Botryosphaeria site. http://www.crem.fct.unl.pt/botryosphaeria_site. [31 Nov 2017].

Ramos AP, Talhinhas P, Sreenivasaprasad S, Oliveira H, 2016. Characterization of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, as the main causal agent of citrus anthracnose, and C. karstii as species preferentially associated with lemon twig dieback in Portugal. Phytoparasitica 44: 549-561. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12600-016-0537-y

Riccioni L, Valente MT, Giambattista GD, 2017. First report of Neofusicoccum parvum causing shoot blight and plant decay on pomegranate in Tarquinia, Italy. J Plant Pathol 99: 294.

Spagnolo A, Mondello V, Larignon P, Villaume S, Rabenoelina F, Clément C, Fontaine F. (2017). Defense responses in grapevine (cv. Mourvèdre) after inoculation with the Botryosphaeria dieback pathogens Neofusicoccum parvum and Diplodia seriata and their relationship with flowering. Int J Mol Sci 18: 393-405. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020393

Steel RGD, Torrie JH, 1985. Bioestadística: principios y procedimientos, 1ª ed en español. McGraw-Hill, Interamericana de México, México. 622 pp.

Triki MA, HadjTaieb SK, Cheffi M, Gharbi Y, Rhouma A, 2015. First report of dieback of olive trees caused by Neofusicoccum australe in Tunisia. J Plant Pathol 97: 212.

Twizeyimana M, Förster H, McDonald V, Wang DH, Adaskaveg JE, Eskalen A, 2013. Identification and pathogenicity of fungal pathogens associated with stem-end rot of avocado in California. Plant Dis 97: 1580-1584. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-03-13-0230-RE

Zea-Bonilla T, González-Sánchez MA, Martín-Sánchez PM, Pérez-Jiménez RM, 2007. Avocado dieback caused by Neofusicoccum parvum in the Andalucia region, Spain. Plant Dis 91: 1052. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-91-8-1052B




DOI: 10.5424/sjar/2019171-13561