Morphological and chemical markers associated with Acyrthosiphon pisum tolerance in hybrid pea lines

Ivelina M. Nikolova


Aim of study: Determining morphological and chemical markers in hybrid lines of winter forage pea (Pisum sativum subsp. arvense L.) associated with Acyrthosiphon pisum tolerance for breeding programs.

Area of study: The experimental field of the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria, during the 2016-2018 period.

Material and methods: Six hybrid lines of winter forage pea were studied for tolerance to A. pisum. The field trial was conducted using a long-plot design and a natural background of soil (leached chernozem) supplied with major nutrients. An entomological net for sweeping was used once a week for aphid number recording. Stem height and leaf number were recorded and chemical composition was determined at the flowering stage. The coefficient of variation concerning aphid density was calculated and the stability and adaptability of lines was evaluated.

Main results: Hybrid lines 6 and 12A were stable, widely adapted to the changing environmental conditions and the aphid density was statistically the lowest (31.1 and 36.8 individuals/m2, respectively). A significant positive interaction was found between aphid density and plant height, leaf area, protein, and phosphorus content. Lines 6 and 12A had lower stems (74.7 and 82.5 cm), smaller leaf areas (571.13 and 657.39 cm2/plant), lower protein and P contents, and these markers defined them as aphid tolerant.

Research highlights: Incorporation of plant markers of pea lines, less preferred by aphids, is an efficient tool for improving breeding programs for aphid resistance.


aphid density dependent; morphological traits; chemical traits

Full Text:



Agrawal A, 2004. Plant defense and density dependence in the population growth of herbivores. Am Natur 164: 113-120.

Agrawal A, 2007. Macroevolution of plant defense strategies. Trends Ecol Evol 22: 103-109.

Agrawal A, Fishbein M, 2006. Plant defense syndromes. Ecology 87: 132-149.[132:PDS]2.0.CO;2

Alberts MJA, 2014. A comparison of statistical methods to describe genotype x environment interaction and yield stability in multi-location maize trials. Master's thesis. Univ. free state Bloemfontein, South Africa, 100 pp.

AOAC, 2001. Official methods of analysis, 18th ed. Assoc Anal Chem, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.

Babikova Z, Gilbert L, Randall KC, Bruce TJA, Pickett JA, Johnson D, 2014. Increasing phosphorus supply is not the mechanism by which arbuscular mycorrhiza increase attractiveness of bean (Vicia faba) to aphids. J Exp Bot 65 (18): 5231-5241.

Bala K, Sood AK, Pathania VS, Thakur S, 2018. Effect of plant nutrition in insect pest management: A review. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 7 (4): 2737-2742.

Buchman N, Cuddington K, 2009. Influences of pea morphology and Interacting factors on pea aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) Reproduction. Environ Entomol 38 (4): 962-970.

Carmona D, Lajeunesse M, Johnson M, 2011. Plant traits that predict resistance to herbivores. Funct Ecol 25: 358-367.

Cisneros JJ, Godfrey LD, 2001. Midseason pest status of the cotton aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) in California cotton: is nitrogen a key factor? Environ Entomol 30: 501-510.

Dadd RH, 1973. Insect nutrition: current developments and metabolic implications. Annu Rev Entomol 18: 381-420.

Eberhart SA, Russel WA, 1966. Stability parameters for comparing varieties. Crop Sci 6: 36-40.

Fikru JH, Higley LG, Ni X, Quisenberry SS, 1999. Physiological and growth tolerance in wheat to Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) injury. Environ Entomol 28 (5, 1): 787-794.

Finlay KW, Wilkinson GN, 1963. The analysis of adaptation in plant-hybrid programme. Aust J Agric Res 14: 742-754.

Fitt G, Mares C, Constable G, 2002. Enhancing host plant resistance of Australian cotton varieties. The Australian Cottongrower 23 (1): 20-26.

Gash AFJ, 2012. Wheat nitrogen fertilisation effects on the performance of the cereal aphid Metopolophium dirhodum. Agronomy 2: 1-13.

Geteneh M, 2018. Resistance mechanism(s) in lentil genotype to pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Master's thesis, Haramaya University, Haramay, 152 pp.

Godfrey L, Rosenheim J, Goodell P, 2000. Cotton aphid emerges as major pest in SJV cotton. Calif Agr 54 (6): 26-29.

Kareiva P, Sahakain R, 1990. Tritrophic effects of a sample architectural mulation in pea. Nature 345 (6274): 433-434.

Kemal AA, 2002. An integrated approach to pest management in field pea, Pisum sativum (L.), with emphasis on pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris). Master's thesis, Univ of the Free State, Ethiopian Agric Res Organ, 161 pp.

Legrand A, Barbosa P, 2000. Pea aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) fecundity, rate of increase, and within-plant distribution unaffected by plant morphology. Environ Entomol 29: 987-993.

Lyubishchev A, 1986. Dispersion analysis in biology. Moscow Univ Press, 200 pp.

Makasheva RK, 1973. Pea. Kolos, Leningrad, USSR.

Moravvej GH, Hatefi S, 2008. Role of nitrogen content of pea (Pisum sativum L.) on pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) establishment. Caspian J Env Sci 6 (2): 113-131.

Münzbergová Z, Skuhrovec J, 2013. Effect of habitat conditions and plant traits on leaf damage in the Carduoideae subfamily. PLoS ONE 8 (5): e64639.

Nikolova I, 2017. Factors affecting on the susceptibility of vetch cultivars to infestation by Acyrthosiphon pisum L. (Hemiptera, Aphididae). Russ J Ecol 48 (5): 482-490.

Onyishi GC, Harriman JC, Ngwuta AA, Okporie EO, Chukwu SC, 2013. Efficacy of some cowpea genotypes against major insect pests in southeastern agro-ecology of Nigeria. Middle-East J Sci Res 15 (1): 114-121.

Posylaeva GA, 1990. A study on the pea aphid population structure [Исследование структуры населения гороховой тли]. Zashchita Rastenii (Kiev) 37: 42-45 [in Russian].

Rhainds M, Messing RH, 2005. Spatial and temporal density dependence in a population of melon aphids, Aphis gossyppii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae), on established and sentinel taro plants. Appl Entomol Zool 40: 273-282.

Ricklefs R, 2008. Foliage chemistry and the distribution of Lepidoptera larvae on broad-leaved trees in southern Ontario. Oecologia 157: 53-67.

Sandstrom J, Petterson J, 1994. Amino acid composition of phloem sap and the relation to intraspecific variation in pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) performance. J Insect Physiol 40: 947-955.

Santiago L, Wright S, Harms K, Yavitt J, Korine C et al., 2012. Tropical tree seedling growth responses to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium addition. J Ecol 100: 309-316.

Silva AA, Varanda EM, Primavesi AC, 2005. Effect of the inherent variation in the mineral concentration of alfalfa cultivars on aphid populations. Bragantia (Campinas) 64 (2): 233-239.

Soroka JJ, MacKay PA, 1991. Antibiosis and antixenosis to pea aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) in cultivars of field peas. J Econ Entomol 84: 1951-1956.

Spahkov S, 2004. Pests of soybean and forage pea in the conditions of the Voronezh forest-steppe area and methods of limiting their density. Master's thesis, Voronezh, Russia, 145 pp.

Staley JT, Stafford DB, Green ER, Leather SR, Rossiter JT, Poppy GM, Wright DJ, 2011. Plant nutrient supply determines competition between phytophagous insects. Proc Biol Sci 278: 718-724.

Stenberg J, Witzell J, Ericson L, 2006. Tall herb herbivory resistance reflects historic exposure to leaf beetles in a boreal archipelago age-gradient. Oecologia 148: 414-425.

TerraW, 1988. Physiology and biochemistry of insect digestion: an evolutionary perspective. Brazil J Med Biol Res 21: 675-734.

Underwood N, Rausher MD, 2000. The effects of host-plant genotype on herbivore population dynamics. Ecology 81: 1565-1576.

Vannette RL, Hunter MD, 2009. Mycorrhizal fungi as mediators of defence against insect pests in agricultural systems. Agric For Entomol 11: 351-358.

Woods HA, Fagan WF, Elser JJ, Harrison JF, 2004. Allometric and phylogenetic variation in insect phosphorus content. Funct Ecol 18: 103-109.

DOI: 10.5424/sjar/2019173-14981