Plant growth, yield and fruit quality of ‘Lane Late’ navel orange on four citrus rootstocks

P. Legua, R. Bellver, J. Forner, M. A. Forner-Giner


This study analyses the influence of four citrus rootstocks, Citrus macrophylla Wester, Gou Tou Chen (Citrus hybrid), C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. and Cleopatra mandarin (C. reshni Hort. ex Tan.), on growth, yield and fruit quality on Lane Late navel orange. Trees were grown in a plot in Alicante (Spain), where the soil is clay loam, with pH 8.5 and electric conductivity in the 1/5 extract: 0.643 mmhos cm–1. Yield was weighed during four harvests, fruit quality was determined in 2007 and 2009. Cleopatra mandarin and Gou Tou Chen were found to be the most invigorating rootstocks for ‘Lane Late’ in heavy and calcareous soil. Trees on C. macrophylla rootstock produced the highest cumulative yield (328.81 kg tree–1), without significant differences compared to trees on Cleopatra mandarin (292.41 kg tree–1). Rootstock significantly affected fruit quality variables. C. macrophylla and C. volkameriana would appear to induce the highest fruit weight and ripening index.


fruit colour; fruit size; juice; organic acids; yield efficiency

Full Text:



Agustí M., 2000. Patrones. In: Citricultura. Mundi Prensa, Madrid. pp. 325-343. [In Spanish].

Albertini M.V., Carcouet E., Pailly O., Gambotti C., Luro F., Berti L., 2006. Changes in organic acids and sugars during early stages of development of acidic and acidless citrus fruit. J Agric Food Chem 54, 8335-8339. PMid:17032048

Bassal M.A., 2009. Growth, yield and fruit quality of 'Marisol' clementine grown on four rootstocks in Egypt. Sci Hortic 119, 132-137.

Bisio L., Vignale B., Carrau F., Díez J.C., 2003. Evaluation of nine rootstocks for 'Owari' Satsuma mandarin in Uruguay. Proc Int Soc Citriculture, IX Congress, vol. 1, Orlando, Florida, December 3-7, 2000. pp. 479-481.

Castle W.S., 1987. Citrus rootstocks. In: Rootstocks for fruits crops (Rom R.C., Carlson R.F., eds). John Wiley and Sons, NY, USA. pp. 361-369.

Demirkeser T.H., Kaplankiran M., Yildiz E., 2005. The effects of some citrus rootstocks on fruit yield and quality for Rohde Red Valencia orange during the period of the juvenility in Dortyol (Hatay-Turkey) conditions. 7th International Society of Citrus Nurserymen Congress. Cairo, Egypt, September 17-21 (Abst. No. 28).

Forner-Giner M.A., Alcaide A., Primo-Millo E., Forner J.B., 2003. Performance of 'Navelina' orange on 14 rootstocks in Northern Valencia (Spain). Sci Hortic 98, 223-232.

García-Sánchez F., Pérez-Pérez J.G., Botía P., Martínez V., 2006. The response of young mandarin trees grown under saline conditions depends on the rootstock. Eur J Agron 24, 129-139.

Georgiou A., 2000. Performance of 'Nova' mandarin on eleven rootstocks in Cyprus. Sci Hortic 84, 115-126.

Georgiou A., 2002. Evaluation of rootstocks for 'Clementine' mandarin in Cyprus. Sci Hortic 93, 29-38.

Georgiou A., Gregoriou C., 1999. Growth, yield and fruit quality of 'Shamouti' orange on fourteen rootstocks in Cyprus. Sci Hortic 80, 113-121.

Gregoriou C., Economides C.V., 1993. Tree growth, yield and fruit quality of 'Ortanique' tangor on eleven rootstocks in Cyprus. J Amer Soc Hort Sci 118, 335-338.

Jiménez-Cuesta M., Cuquerella J., Martínez J., Vega J.M., 1981. Determination of a colour index for fruit degreening. Proc Int Soc Citriculture, IV Congress, vol. 2, Tokio, Japan. pp. 750-753.

Kaplankiran M., Demirkeser T.H., Yildiz E., 2005. The effects of some citrus rootstocks of fruit yield and quality for Okitsu Satsuma during the juvenility period in Dortyol (Hatay, Turkey) conditions. 7th International Society of Citrus Nurserymen Congress, Cairo, Egypt. pp. 27.

Kelebek H., Selli S., Canbas A., Cabaroglu T., 2009. HPLC determination of organic acids, sugars, phenolic compositions and antioxidant capacity of orange juice and orange wine made from a Turkish cv. Kozan. Microchem J 91, 187-192.

Lee H.S., Castle W.S., 2001. Seasonal changes of carotenoid pigments and color in Hamlin, Earlygold, and Budd Blood orange juices. J Agric Food Chem 49, 877-882. PMid:11262044

Mourão Filho F.A.A., Espinoza-Núñez E., Stuchi E.S., Ortega E.M.M., 2007. Plant growth, yield and fruit quality of 'Fallglo' and 'Sunburst' mandarins on four rootstocks. Sci Hortic 114, 45-49.

Newcomb D.A., 1978. Selection of rootstocks for salinity and disease resistance. Proc Int Soc Citriculture, vol. II. May 1-8, 1977 (Grierson N., ed). Orlando, FL, USA. pp. 117-120.

Nisperos-Carriedo M.O., Baldwin E.A., Moshonas M.G., Shaw P.E., 1992. Determination of volatile flavour components, sugars and ascorbic dehydroascorbic, and other organic acids in calamondin (Citrus mitis Blanco). J Agric Food Chem 40, 2464-2466.

Olmo M., Nadas A., García J.M., 2000. Nondestructive methods to evaluate maturity level of oranges. J Food Sci 65, 365-369.

Pérez-Pérez J.G., Robles J.M., Tovar J.C., Botia P., 2009. Response to drought and salt stress of lemon Fino 49 under field conditions: water relations, osmotic adjustment and gas exchange. Sci Hortic 122, 83-90.

Turrell F.M., 1946. Tables of surfaces and volumes of spheres and of prolate and oblate spheroids and spheroidal coefficients. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Tuzcu Ö., Yildrim B., Yesiloglu T., 2004. Effect of different rootstocks and sectors on fruit yield and its distribution depending to the tree canopy. Proc Int Soc Citriculture, X Congress, Agadir, Morocco, February. pp. 405-408.

Verdú E.L., 1993. Comportamiento de Clemenules sobre patrones tolerantes. In: Ajuntament de Nules (eds). I Congreso de Citricultura de La Plana, 26-27 de Marzo. pp. 31-43. [In Spanish].

Westwood M.N., Roberts A.N., 1970. The relationship between trunk cross-sectional area and weight of apples trees. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 95, 28-30.

Wutscher T.M., Bowman K.D., 1999. Performance of 'Valencia' orange on 21 rootstocks in Central Florida. Hortsci 34, 622-624.

Yildrim B., Tuzcu Ö., Yesiloglu T., 2004. Effect of different rootstocks and sectors on fruit yield and its distribution depending to the tree canopy. Proc Int So Citriculture, X Congress, Agadir, Morocco. pp. 515-519.

DOI: 10.5424/sjar/20110901-172-10