Energy potential of fruit tree pruned biomass in Croatia

N. Bilanzdija, N. Voca, T. Kricka, A. Matin, V. Jurisic

Abstract


 

The world's most developed countries and the European Union (EU) deem that the renewable energy sources should partly substitute fossil fuels and become a “bridge” to the utilization of other energy sources of the future. This paper will present the possibility of using pruned biomass from fruit cultivars. It will also present the calculation of potential energy from the mentioned raw materials in order to determine the extent of replacement of non-renewable sources with these types of renewable energy. One of the results of the intensive fruit-growing process, in post pruning stage, is large amount of pruned biomass waste. Based on the calculated biomass (kg ha-1) from intensively grown woody fruit crops that are most grown in Croatia (apple, pear, apricots, peach and nectarine, sweet cherry, sour cherry, prune, walnut, hazelnut, almond, fig, grapevine, and olive) and the analysis of combustible (carbon 45.55-49.28%, hydrogen 5.91-6.83%, and sulphur 0.18-0.21%) and non-combustible matters (oxygen 43.34-46.6%, nitrogen 0.54-1.05%, moisture 3.65-8.83%, ashes 1.52-5.39%) with impact of lowering the biomass heating value (15.602-17.727 MJ kg-1), the energy potential of the pruned fruit biomass is calculated at 4.21 PJ.


Keywords


bioenergy; heating values; olive groves; orchards; renewable energy sources; vineyards

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bhattacharya SC, Salam PA, 2002. Low greenhouse gas biomass options for cooking in the developing countries. Biomass Bioenerg 22: 305-317. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0961-9534(02)00008-9

Cao Y, Wang Y, Riley JT, Pan WP, 2006. A novel biomass air gasification process for producing tar-free higher heating value fuel gas. Fuel Process Technol 87: 343-353. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2005.10.003

CEN/TC 14961, 2005. Biomass standards - Fuel specifications and classes.

Croatian Bureau of Statistics, 2010. Statistical yearbook, Croatian Bureau of Statistics, Croatia. p: 262.

Cuiping L, Chuangzhi W, Yanyongjie M, Haitao H, 2004. Chemical elemental characteristics of biomass fuels in China. Biomass Bioenerg 27: 119-130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2004.01.002

Di Blasi C, Tanzi V, Lanzetta M, 1996. A study on the production of agricultural residues in Italy. Biomass Bioenerg 12: 321-331. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0961-9534(96)00073-6

Fernández-Llorente MJ, Carrasco-García JE, 2008. Suitability of thermo-chemical corrections for determining gross calorific value in biomass. Thermochimica Acta 468: 101-107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tca.2007.12.003

Holtz T, 2006. Holzpellet-Heizungen. Ökobuch, Germany. pp: 7-41.

Hoogwijk M, Faaij A, De Vries B, Turkenburg W, 2009. Exploration of regional and global cost–supply curves of biomass energy from short-rotation cultures at abandoned culture land and rest land under four IPCC SRES land-use scenarios. Biomass Bioenerg 33: 26-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2008.04.005

Klason T, Bai XS, 2007 Computational study of the combustion process and NO formation in a small-scale wood pellet furnace. Fuel 86: 1465-1474. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2006.11.022

Kricka T, Tomic F, Voca N, Janusic V, 2007. Production of biogas from agricultural residues. Naftaplin. Scientific Journal of the Croatian Society of Oil Engineers and Geologists 14: 49-58.

Kricka T, Voca N, Brlek Savic T, Bilandzija N, Sito S, 2010. Higher heating values estimation of horticultural biomass from their proximate and ultimate analyses data. J Food Agric Environ 8: 767-771.

Obernberger I, Thek G, 2004. Physical characterization and chemical composition of densities biomass fuels with regard to their combustion behavior. Biomass Bioenerg 27: 653-669. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2003.07.006

OJ, 2004. Rulebook on methods of sampling and quality control (137/2004) of the Croatian Parliament and of the Council of the January 10. Official Gazette 04/05. p. 27.

OJ, 2009a. 2009/28/EZ Directive (2009/28/EC) of the European Parliament and of the Council of April 23 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC Text with EEA relevance. p. 82.

OJ, 2009b. Law on transportation biofuels (65/09) of the Croatian Parliament and of the Council of May 16. Official Gazette 04/05. p. 1.

Perlack RD, Wright LL, 1995. Technical and economic status of wood energy feedstock production. Energy: 279-284. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0360-5442(94)00076-F

Purohit P, Tripathi AK, Kandpal TC, 2006. Energetics of coal substitution by briquettes of agricultural residues. Energy 31: 1321-1331. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2005.06.004

Radojevic R, Zivkovic M, Urosevi M, Radivojevic D, 2007. Technological and technical aspects of using pruning residues of fruit trees and grapevine. J Agric Technic Energy Agric 11: 32-36.

Scarlat N, Blujdea V, Dallemand JF, 2011. Assessment of the availability of agricultural and forest residues for bioenergy production in Romania. Biomass Bioenerg 35: 1995-2005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.01.057

Spinelli R, Magagnotti N, Nati C, 2010. Harvesting vineyard pruning residues for energy use. Biomass Bioenerg 115: 316-322.

Suárez-García F, Martínez-Alonso A, Fernández Llorente M, Tascón JMD, 2002. Inorganic matter characterization in vegetable biomass feedstocks. Fuel 81: 1161-1169. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-2361(02)00026-1

Tomic F, Kricka T, 2007. Strategy for production and use of biofuels in the European Union, Agriculture and forestry as producer of renewable energy sources. Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts 12: 43-52.

Tomic F, Kricka T, Matic S, 2008. Available agricultural surfaces and potentials for biofules production in Croatia. Sumarski list, 132: 323-330.

Van Dam J, Faaij APC, Lewandowski I, Fischer G, 2007. Biomass production potentials in Central and Eastern Europe under different scenarios. Biomass Bioenerg 31: 345-366. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2006.10.001

Van Den Broek R, 2000. Sustainability of biomass electricity systems—an assessment of costs, macro-economic and environmental impacts in Nicaragua, Ireland and the Netherlands. Energy Policy 30: 167-169.

Vanloo S, Koppejan J, 2002. Handbook of biomass combustion and co-firing. Twente University Press, Enschede, Netherlands.

Vassilev SV, Baxter D, Andersen LK, Vassileva CG, 2010. An overview of the chemical composition of biomass. Fuel 89: 913-933. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2009.10.022

Voca N, Kricka T, Janusic V, Jukic Z, Matin A, Kis D, 2008. Fuel properties of biodiesel produced from different raw materials in Croatia. Strojniski Vestnik-Journal of Mechanical Engineering 51: 232-244.

Wiinikka H, Gebart R, Boman C, Boström D, Öhman M, 2007. Influence of fuel ash composition on high temperature aerosol formation in fixed bed combustion of woody biomass pellets. Fuel 86: 181-193. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2006.07.001

Zeng XY, Ma YT, Ma LR, 2010. Utilization of straw in biomass energy in China. Renew Sust Energ Rev 11: 7261-7266.




DOI: 10.5424/sjar/2012102-126-11