Spatial distribution of Cydia fagiglandana (Zeller) in an exploited holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) forest

A. Jimenez-Pino, L. Maistrello, M. A. Lopez-Martinez, M. E. Ocete-Rubio, F. J. Soria-Iglesias


Cydia fagiglandana (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a carpophagous insect which affects the quality and viability of the fruits of beech, oak and chestnut trees. The majority of the works on this species in holm oak woods dealt with assessing its damages. No investigations have yet been performed on the spatial distribution of this pest, although this element is one of the key features to take in account in order to develop proper integrated management programs. The present study, performed during a four years period in an exploited holm oak forest area in Southern Spain, investigated the spatial distribution of C. fagiglandana integrating classic methods based on dispersion rates and distribution fitting together with the elaboration of population density maps based on GIS. Our results showed that the infestation rate progressively decreased from 0.339 in 2001 to 0.102 in 2004. Density maps for C. fagiglandana also show an heterogeneous and aggregated distribution of this insect and a spatio-temporal stability in this area. It is concluded that during the four years of the study inter-specific competition with the weevil Curculio elephas was the factor that most affected the spatial distribution of C. fagiglandana in the experimental plot.


carpophagous pests; dispersion rates; population density maps; Tortricidae

Full Text:



Angeli G., Antonaroli R., Nanni C., Rama F., 1997. Prime esperienze di contenimento delle due tortrici del castagno Cydia fagiglandana e C. splendana con la técnica della confusione sessuale. Informatore Fitopatologico XLVII 1, 65-70. [In Italian].

Arbogast R.T., Kendra P.E., Mankin R.W., Mcgovern J.E., 2000. Monitoring insect pests in retail stores by trapping and spatial analysis. J Econ Entomol 93(5), 1531-1542. PMid:11057728

Blom P.E., Fleischer S.J., 2001. Dynamics in the spatial structure of Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Colepotera: Chrysomelidae). Environ Entomol 30(2), 350-364.

Bonal R., Muñoz A., 2008. Negative consequences of premature seed abscission on insect performance: acorn growth suppression constrains Curculio elephas larval size. Ecol Entomol 33, 31-36.

Branco M., Branco C., Merouani H., Almeida M.H., 2001. Germination success, survival and seedling vigour of Quercus suber acorns in relation to insect damage. Forest Ecol Manag 5716, 1-6.

Brenner R., Focks D., Arbogast R., Weaver D., Shuman D., 1998. Practical use of spatial analysis in precision targeting for integrated pest management. Am Entomol 44(2), 79-101.

Cadahia D., 1977. Repartición espacial de las poblaciones en Entomología Aplicada. Bol San Veg Plagas 3(1), 219- 233. [In Spanish].

Debouzie D., 1984. Analyse exhaustive d'un châtaignier: effectifs des fruits et des insectes (Laspeyresia splendana Hubner et Balaninus elephas Gyll.). Fruits 39, 483-486. [In French].

Debouzie D., Heizman A., Desouhant E., Menu F., 1996. Interference at several temporal and spatial scales between two chesnut insects. Oecologia 108, 151-158.

Debouzie D., Desouhant E., Oberli F., Menu F., 2002. Resource limitation in natural populations of phytophagous insects. A long-term study case with the chestnut weevil. Acta Oecologica 23, 31-39.

Desouhant E., Debouzie D., Menu F., 1998. Oviposition pattern of phytophagous insects: on the importance of host population heterogeneity. Oecologia 114, 382-388.

Fisher R.A., Corbet A.S., Williams C.B., 1943. The relation between the nymber of species and the number of individuals in a random sample of an animal population. J Anim Ecol 12, 42-58.

Gharekhani G., 2009. Modeling population dynamics and dispersion of codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae). Doctoral thesis. Faculty of Agricultural Sciences at the University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany. 106 pp.

Herrera C.M., Jordano P., Guitián J., Traveset A., 1998. Annual variability in seed production by woody plants and the masting concept: reassessment of principles and relationship to pollination and seed dispersal. Am Nat 152(4), 576-593. PMid:18811365

Hurlbert S., 1990. Spatial distribution of the montane unicorn. Oikos 58, 257-271.

Iwao S., Kuno E., 1968. Use of the regression of mean crowding on mean density for estimating sample size and the transformation of data for the analysis of variance. Res Popu Ecol 10, 210-214.

Jiménez A., 2003. Bioecología y control de los principales insectos carpófagos de la encina. Tesis doctoral. Universidad de Sevilla, Spain. 282 pp. [In Spanish].

Jiménez A., Soria F.J., Villagrán M., Ocete M.E., 2005a. Descripción del ciclo biológico de Curculio elephas Gyllenhal (1836) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) en un encinar del sur de España. Bol San Veg Plagas 31, 353- 363. [In Spanish].

Jiménez A., Soria F.J., Villagrán M., Ocete M.E., 2005b. Distribución espacial y variaciones temporales de Curculio elephas Gyllenhal en bellotas de Quercus rotundifolia Lam. Bol Soc Entomol Aragon 37, 283-288. [In Spanish].

Jiménez A., Soria F.J., Villagrán M., Ocete M.E., 2006. Seguimiento del ciclo biológico de Cydia fagigalndana (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) en un encinar del sur de España. Bol San Veg Plagas 32, 159-168. [In Spanish].

Jiménez A., López M.A., González-Andújar J.L., Ocete M.E., Soria F.J., 2008. Spatial distribution and mapping of Curculio elephas Gyllenhal in holm oak (Quercus ilex L.). Agrociencia (Uruguay) XII(1), 35-45. [In Spanish].

Jumean Z., Wood C.H., Gries G., 2009. Frequency distribution of larval codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., aggregations on trees in unmanaged apple orchards of the Pacific Northwest. Environ Entomol 38(5), 1395-1399. PMid:19825294

Junta De Andalucía, 2003. Estadística de aprovechamientos forestales en Andalucía. Consejería de Medio Ambiente, Sevilla. Available in [18 May, 2010].

Kelly D., 1994. The evolutionary ecology of mast seeding. Tree 9, 465-470.

Leiva M.J., Fernández-Alés R., 2005. Holm-oak (Quercus ilex subs. ballota) acorns infestation by insects in Mediterranean dehesas and shrublands. Its effect on acorn germination and seedling emergence. Forest Ecol Manag 212, 221-229.

Marm, 2007. Anuario de estadística agroalimentaria. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, y Medio Rural y Marino, Madrid. Available in [18 May, 2010]. MENU F., 1993. Strategies of emergence in the chestnut weevil Curculio elephas (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Oecologia 96, 383-390.

Montoya J.M., 1989. Encinas y encinares. Ed Mundi-Prensa, Madrid. 131 pp. [In Spanish].

Ozols E., 1950. The influence of climatic conditions on mass reproduction of pea moth Laspeyresia nigricana Steph. in Latvian SSR. In: Mass reproduction of animals and it forecasting. Part I (Koshik A.K., ed). Kiev Univ Publ, Kiev. 150 pp.

Plieninger T., Pulido F.J., Konold W., 2003. Effects of land-use history on size structure of holm oak stands in Spanish dehesas: implications for conservation and restoration. Environ Conserv 30, 61-70.

Ramírez-Dávila J.F., González-Andújar J.L., López Martínez M.A., Ocete R., 2005. Modelización y mapeo de la distribución espacial de las ninfas del mosquito verde Jacobiasca lybica (Bergevin & Zanon) (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) en viñedo. Bol San Veg Plagas 31, 119-132. [In Spanish].

Ribes-Dasi M., Albajes R., Sarasúa M.J., Avilla J., 2001. The use of geostatistic to study the spatial distribution of Cydia pomonella and Pandamis heparana in Lleida (Spain). IOBC/WPRS Bulletin 24(5), 185-188.

Rotundo G., Rotundo A., 1986. Principali fitofagi delle castagne: recenti acquisizioni sul controllo chimico e biologico. Giornate di studio sul Castagno, Caprarola (VT), 3-19. [In Italian].

Sawyer J., 1989. Inconstancy of Taylor's b: simulated sampling with different quadrat sizes and spatial distributions. Res Popul Ecol 31, 11-24.

Scarascia-Mugnozza G., Oswald H., Piussi P., Radoglou K., 2000. Forest of the Mediterranean region: gaps in knowledge and research needs. Forest Ecol Manag 132, 97-109.

Sciarretta A., Trematerra P., 2006. Geostatistical characterization of the spatial distribution of Grapholita molesta and Anarsia lineatella males in an agricultural landscape. J Appl Entomol 130(2), 73-83.

Soria F.J., Cano E., Ocete M.E., 1996. Efectos del ataque de fitófagos perforadores en el fruto de la encina (Quercus rotundifolia Lam.). Bol San Veg Plagas 22, 427- 432. [In Spanish].

Soria F.J., Villagrán M., Martín P., Ocete M.E., 1999a. Curculio elephas (Gyllenhal) (Col.: Curculionidae) y Cydia fagiglandana (Zeller) (Lep.: Tortricidae) en encina (Quercus rotundifolia Lam.): infestación y relaciones interespecíficas. Bol San Veg Plagas 25, 125-130. [In Spanish].

Soria F.J., Cano E., Ocete M.E., 1999b. Valoración del ataque de Curculio elephas (Gyllenhal) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) y Cydia spp. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) en el fruto de alcornoque (Quercus suber L.). Bol San Veg Plagas 25, 69-74. [In Spanish].

Soria F.J., Jiménez A., Villegrán M., Ocete M.E., 2005. Relación entre la colonización de la encina por Curculio elephas Gyllenhal (1836) (Coleoptera: Curculio- nidae) y el periodo de caída natural de frutos. Bol San Veg Plaga 31, 365-375. [In Spanish].

Syrjala E., 1966. A statistical test for a difference between the spatial distributions of two populations. Ecology 77(1), 75-80.

Taylor L., 1984. Assessing and interpreting the spatial distributions of insect populations. Annu Rev Entomol 29, 321-357.

Torres-Vila L.M., Cruces E., Rodríguez M.C., Sánchez A., Delgado E., Ferrero J.J., Ponce F., Palo E., Barrena F., Aza M.C., Rodríguez F., 2006. Daños, distribución espacial e interacción intra- e inter-específica de los prinicpales carpófagos de encina y alcornoque en Extremadura: Curculio elephas Gyllenthal, Cydia fagiglandana Zeller y Cydia triangulella Goeze. Bol San Veg Plagas 32(1), 45-56. [In Spanish].

Vázquez F.M., Espárrago F., López J.A., Jaraquemada F., 1990. Los ataques de Curculio elephas Gyll. (Balaninus elephas) y Carpocapsa sp. L. sobre Quercus rotundifolia Lam. en Extremadura. Bol San Veg Plagas 16, 755-759. [In Spanish].

Villagrán m., soria f.j., martín p., ocete m.e., 2000. Caracterización larvaria de los principales tortrícidos perforadores del fruto de quercíneas. Bol San Veg Plagas 26, 187-192. [In Spanish].

Yu X., Zhou H., Luo T., 2003. Spatial and temporal variations in insect-infested acorn fall in a Quercus liaotungensis forest in North China. Ecol Res 18, 155-164.

DOI: 10.5424/sjar/20110902-050-10