Dead mycelium of Penicillium chrysogenum protects transplanted cotton plants agains fungal wilts in a saline field

H. J. Zhang, H. Z. Dong, W. J. Li


Previous studies have shown that the dead mycelium of Penicillium chrysogenum at 900-1,500 kg ha–1 effectively  controlled Fusarium and Verticillium wilt of cotton. Our objective was to determine if the dead mycelium is also  effective at lower rates under a cotton seedling transplanting system. Columned soil blocks (500 g each), made of  fertile soil alone in the first experiment, and both soil and dead mycelium at varying rates in the second experiment,  were sown with cotton seeds in 2006 and 2007. Seedlings in the mycelium-free blocks were drenched with aqueous  extract of the dead mycelium after full emergence, and then transplanted to a saline field. The disease severity of  Fusarium oxysporum f.sp vasinfectum and Verticillium dahliae, leaf chlorophyll and malondialdehyde concentrations,  leaf photosynthetic rate and lint yield of the transplanted plants were determined. The aqueous extract at a rate of 1  to 5% provided 18.6 to 25.6% protection against Fusarium wilt but not against Verticillium wilt. Lint yield was slightly  increased with the aqueous extract in 2006, but not in 2007. The incorporation of the dead mycelium to soil blocks  before sowing was effective in controlling both the Fusarium and Verticillium wilts of cotton. Dead mycelium applied  at 1 to 3% (w/w) provided 26-30% protection against Fusarium wilt and 48-50% protection against Verticillium wilt,  and increased lint yield by 13-14%. Such incorporation also delayed leaf senescence as indicated by the increased leaf  photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll content, and reduced malondialdehyde concentrations. Incorporation of the dead  mycelium of P. chrysogenum into soil blocks at a relatively lower rate (270 kg ha–1) would be an effective application  mode for wilt control in sustainable cotton production. 


Fusarium oxysporum f.sp vasinfectum; leaf senescence; lint yield; seedling transplanting; Verticillium dahliae.

Full Text:



Brannen P.M., Kenney D.S., 1997. Kodiak® – a successful biological-control product for suppression of soil-borne plant pathogens of cotton. J Ind Microbiol Biot 19, 169-171.

Colson-Hanks E.S., Allen S.J., Deverall B.J., 2000. Effects of 2, 6- dichloroisonicotinic acid or benzothiadiazole on Alternaria leaf spot, bacterial blight and Verticillium wilt in cotton under field conditions. Aust Plant Pathol 29, 170-177.

Daayf F., Nicole M., Bohe B., Pando A., Geiger J.P., 1997. Early vascular defense reactions of cotton roots infected with a defoliating mutant strain of Verticillium dahliae. Eur J Plant Pathol, 103, 125-136.

Davis R.D., Moore N.Y., Kochman J.K., 1996. Characterisation of a population of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum causing wilt of cotton in Australia. Aust J Agric Res 47, 1143-1156.

Dong H., Cohen Y., 2001. Extracts of killed Penicillium chrysogenum induce resistance against Fusarium wilt of melon. Phytoparasitica 29, 421-430.

Dong H., Cohen Y., 2002a. Dry mycelium of Penicillium chrysogenum induces resistance against verticillium wilt and enhances growth of cotton plants. Phytoparasitica 30, 147-157.

Dong H., Cohen Y., 2002b. Induced resistance in cotton seedlings against Fusarium wilt by dried biomass of Penicillium chrysogenum and its aqueous extract. Phytoparasitica 30, 77-87.

Dong H., Li W., Zhang D., Tang W., 2003. Differential expression of induced resistance by an aqueous extract of killed Penicillium chrysogenum against Verticillium wilt of cotton. Crop Prot 22, 129-134.

Dong H., Li W., Tang W., Li Z., Zhang D., 2005. Increased yield and revenue with a seedling transplanting system for hybrid seed production in Bt cotton. J Agron Crop Sci 191, 116-124.

Dong H., Zhang X., Choen Y., Zhou Y., Li W., Li Z., 2006. Dry mycelium of Penicillium chrysogenum protects cotton plants against wilt diseases and increases yield under field conditions Crop Prot 25, 324-330.

Dong H., Li W., Tang W., Li Z., Zhang D., 2007. Enhanced plant growth, development and fiber yield of Bt transgenic cotton by an integration of plastic mulching and seedling transplanting. Ind Crops Prod 26, 298-306.

El-Sahrigi A.F., Kamel A.S., El-Khatib S.I., 2001. A study on mechanization of cotton transplanting. Egyptian J Agric Res 79, 740-756.

Gao J.P., Ben-Daniel B., Cohen Y., 2001. Organic fertilizers of microbial origin enhance growth and reduce infection of sweet corn by Fusarium moniliforme. Phytoparasitica 29, 268 (abstr).

Gotlieb D., Oka Y., Ben-Daniel B., Cohen Y., 2003. Dry mycelium of Penicillium chrysogenum protects cucumber and tomato plants against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica. Phytoparasitica 31, 217-225.

Hampton R.E., Wullschleger S.D., Oosterhuis D.M., 1990. Impact of Verticillium wilt on net photosynthesis, respiration and photorespiration in field grown cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 37, 271-280.

Hanson L.E., 2000. Reduction of Verticillium wilt symptoms in cotton following seed treatment with Trichoderma virens. J Cotton Sci 4, 224-231.

Iturbe-Ormaetxe I., Escuredo P.R., Arreseigor C., Becana M., 1998. Oxidative damage in pea plants exposed to aqueous deficit or paraquat. Plant Physiol 116, 173-181. PMCid:35156

Jian G., Ma C., Zheng C., Zou Y., 2003. Advance in cotton breeding for resistance to Fusarium and Verticillium wilt in the last fifty years in China. Agric Sci China 2, 280-288.

Karve A.D., 2003. High yield of rainfed cotton through transplanting. Current Sci 84, 974-975.

Saidkarimov A., Cohen Y., 2003. Efficacy of dry mycelium of Penicillium chrysogenum in controlling wilt diseases of cotton in field miniplots. Phytoparasitica 31, 424 (abstr).

Sherif M.N., Selim M.S.M., Kamel A.S., 1995. Studies on some factors affecting seed and fiber properties of transplanted cotton. Ann Agr Sci Moshtohor 33, 647-657.

Sticher L., Mauch-Mani B., Metraux J.P., 1997. Systemic acquired resistance. Ann Rev Phytopathol 35, 235-270. PMid:15012523

Tang Q.Y., Feng M.G., 1997. Practical statistics and DPS data processing system. China Agricultural Press, Beijing. pp. 1-407.

Thuerig B., Binder A., Boller A., Guyer U., Jiménez S., Rentsch C., Tamm L., 2006. An aqueous extract of the dry mycelium of Penicillium chrysogenum induces resistance in several crops under controlled and field conditions. Eur J Plant Pathol 114, 185-197.

DOI: 10.5424/sjar/20110903-525-10