Genetic variability and pollen effect on the transmission of the chemical components of the almond kernel

C. Font i Forcada, O. Kodad, T. Juan, G. Estopañan, R. Socias i Company

Abstract


The chemical components of the almond kernel are traits contributing to almond quality and must be considered in breeding programs searching for high-quality almonds. Thus, total protein, oil content, fatty acid composition and tocopherol content were determined in 200 genotypes from four progenies from the almond (Prunus amygdalus Batsch) breeding program of Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria de Aragón (CITA), Spain. All components showed significant differences among genotypes, as well also among progenies, showing a significant effect of the pollen parent in the average composition of each family. The protein content ranged between 8.4 and 24.7%, and the oil content between 37 and 67.5% of dry matter (DM). The major fatty acid was oleic, followed by linoleic. Alphatocopherol was predominant among the different tocopherol homologues (α, δ, and γ). Significant correlations were found among some components, such as total oil, oleic acid, and γ- and δ-tocopherol, but not with α-tocopherol. Heritability estimates were high for oil content and γ-tocopherol, medium for linoleic acid and α-tocopherol, and low for the rest of components. These results remark the importance of the genetic background of an individual for the quality profile of its kernels and the significant and positive effect of the pollen on the transmission of most chemical components of the almond kernel.


Keywords


fatty acids; heritability; kernel quality; oil content; protein; Prunus amygalus Batsch; tocopherol

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References


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DOI: 10.5424/sjar/20110903-423-10