Analyzing farming systems diversity: a case study in south-western France

J. P. Choisis, C. Thévenet, A. Gibon

Abstract


The huge changes in agricultural activities, which may be amplified by the forthcoming Common Agriculture Policy reform, call the future of crop-livestock systems into question and hence the impact of these changes on landscapes and biodiversity. We analyzed relationships between agriculture, landscape and biodiversity in south-western France. The study area covered about 4000 ha and included four villages. We conducted a survey of 56 farms. Multivariate analysis (multiple factor analysis and cluster analysis) were used to analyze relationships between 25 variables and to build a typology. The type of farming (beef and/or dairy cattle, cash crops), size (area and workforce) and cultivation practices, among others, were revealed as differentiating factors of farms. Six farming types were identified (1) hillside mixed crop-livestock farms, (2) large ‘corporate’ farms, (3) extensive cattle farms, (4) large intensive farms on the valley sides, (5) small multiple-job holdings, and (6) ‘hobby’ farms. The diversity of farming systems revealed the variable impact of the main drivers of change affecting agricultural development, particularly the enlargement and modernization of farms along with the demography of agricultural holdings.

Keywords


farming systems; farm typology; Hills of Gascony; mixed crop-livestock systems; multivariate analysisMixed crop-livestock systems, Multivariate analysis

Full Text:

PDF

References


Acs S, Hanley N, Dallimer M, Gaston KJ, Robertson P, Wilson P, Armsworth PR, 2010. The effect of decoupling on marginal agricultural systems: implications for farm incomes, land use and upland ecology. Land Use Policy 27: 550-563.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2009.07.009

Agreste, 2011. Recensement agricole 2010, France mtropolitaine. Premires tendances. Agreste primeur n266, 4 pp.

Alary V, Messad S, Tach C, Tillard E, 2002. Approach to the diversity of dairy farm systems in Reunion. Revue Elev Md Vt Pays Trop 55: 285-297.

Alvarez-Lpez CJ, Riveiro-Valio J, Marey-Prez MF, 2008. Typology, classification and characterization of farms for agricultural production planning. Span J Agric Res 6(1): 125-136.

Caballero R, 2001. Typology of cereal-sheep farming systems in Castile-La Mancha south-central Spain. Agr Syst 68: 215-232.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-521X(01)00009-9

Cervantes N, Choisis JP, Bouchier A, Lhoste P, 1986. Une typologie des levages bovins dans l'Etat de Colima (Mexique): premire tape du diagnostic. Revue Elev Md vt Pays trop 39: 21-28.

Chatellier V, Guyomard H, 2008. The CAP health check and the rebalancing of agricultural support in France. INRA Sci Soc n6, 8 pp.

Choisis JP, Vallerand F, 1994. Quelques outils d'aide la dcision pour orienter les politiques locales de dveloppement: le cas des filires laitires de petits ruminants en Corse. In: The study of livestock farming systems in a research and development framework. EAAP Publ 63: 337-341.

Choisis JP, Sourdril A, Deconchat M, Balent G, Gibon A, 2010. Understanding regional dynamics of mixed crop-livestock agricultural systems to support rural development in South-western France uplands. Cah Agric 19: 97-103.

Cumming GS, Cumming DHM, Redman CL, 2006. Scale mismatches in social-ecological systems: causes, consequences and solutions. Ecol Soc 11: art. 14.

Daskalopoulou I, Petrou A, 2002. Utilising a farm typology to identify potential adopters of alternative farming activities in Greek agriculture. J Rural Stud 18: 95-103.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0743-0167(01)00027-4

De Ravignan F, Roux P, 1990. L'atlas de la France verte. Jean-Pierre de Monza, France. 220 pp.

Dedieu B, Serviere G, 1997. La mthode Bilan Travail et son application. Opt Mditerr A 38: 353-364.

Deffontaines JP, 1998. Enjeux spatiaux en agronomie. Les sentiers d'un goagronome. Arguments, Paris. 359 pp.

Escofier B, Pages J, 1994. Multiple factor analysis (AFMULT package). Comput Stat Data An 18(1): 121-140.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0167-9473(94)90135-X

Fiorelli C, Dedieu B, Pailleux JY, 2007. Explaining diversity of livestock-farming management strategies of multiple-job holders: importance of level of production objectives and role of farming in the household. Animal 1: 1209-1218.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731107000432
PMid:22444865

Garcia-Martinez A, Olaizola A, Bernues A, 2009. Trajectories of evolution and drivers of change in European mountain cattle farming systems. Animal 3: 152-165.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731108003297
PMid:22444182

Gaston KJ, Fuller RA, 2007. Biodiversity and extinction: losing the common and the widespread. Prog Phys Geog 31: 213.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0309133307076488

Gibon A, 1999. Etudier la diversit des exploitations agricoles pour apprhender les transformations locales de l'utilisation de l'espace: l'espace d'une valle du versant Nord des Pyrnes centrales. Opt Mediterr B 27: 197-215.

Kobrich C, Rehman T, Khan M, 2003. Typification of farming systems for constructing representative farm models: two illustrations of the application of multi-variate analyses in Chile and Pakistan. Agr Syst 76: 141-157.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-521X(02)00013-6

Landais E, 1998. Modelling farm diversity: new approaches to typology building in France. Agr Syst 58(4): 505-527.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-521X(98)00065-1

Laurent C, Cartier S, Fabre C, Mundler P, Ponchelet D, Remy J, 1998. L'activit agricole des mnages ruraux et la cohsion conomique et sociale. Economie Rurale 244: 12-21.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3406/ecoru.1998.4996

L S, Josse J, Husson F, 2007. FactoMineR: an R package for multivariate analysis. J Stat Softw 25: 1-18.

Lobley M, Potter C, 2004. Agricultural change and restructuring: recent evidence from a survey of agricultural households in England. J Rural Stud 20: 499-510.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2004.07.001

Milan MJ, Bartolome J, Quintanilla R, Garcia-Cachan MD, Espejo M, Herraiz PL, Sanchez-Recio JM, Piedrafita J, 2006. Structural characterisation and typology of beef cattle farms of Spanish wooded rangelands (Dehesas). Livest Sci 99: 197-209.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.livprodsci.2005.06.012

Mottet A, Ladet S, Coqu N, Gibon A, 2006. Agricultural land-use change and its drivers in mountain landscapes: A case study in the Pyrenees. Agr Ecosyst Environ 114: 296-310.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2005.11.017

Osty PL, 1978. L'exploitation agricole vue comme un systme. Diffusion de l'innovation et contribution au dveloppement. BTI 326: 43-49.

Pardos L, Maza MT, Fantova E, Sepulveda W, 2008. The diversity of sheep production systems in Aragon (Spain): characterisation and typification of meat sheep farms. Span J Agric Res 6(4): 497-507.

Pelosi C, Goulard M, Balent G, 2010. The spatial scale mismatch between ecological processes and agricultural management: Do difficulties come from underlying theoretical frameworks? Agr Ecosyst Environ 139: 455-462.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2010.09.004

R Development Core Team, 2008. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. Available in http://www.R-project.org.

Renting H, Rossing WAH, Groot JCJ, Van Der Ploeg JD, Laurent C, Perraud D, Stobbelaar DJ, Van Ittersum MK, 2009. Exploring multifunctional agriculture. A review of conceptual approaches and prospects for an integrative transitional framework. J Environ Manage 90: S112-S123.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2008.11.014
PMid:19121889

Russelle MP, Entz MH, Franzluebbers AJ, 2007. Reconsidering integrated crop-livestock systems in North America. Agron J 99: 325-334.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/agronj2006.0139

Ryschawy J, Choisis N, Choisis JP, Joannon A, Gibon A, 2012. Mixed crop-livestock systems: an economic and environmental-friendly way of farming? Animal, doi: 10.1017/S1751731112000675.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731112000675
PMid:22717157

Sheate WR, Partidario MR Do, Byron H, Bina O, Dagg S, 2008. Sustainability assessment of future scenarios: methodology and application to mountain areas of Europe. Environ Manage 41: 282-299.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-007-9051-9
PMid:18167020

Simoncini R, De Groot R, Pinto Correia T, 2009. An integrated approach to assess options for multi-functional use of rural areas. Reg Environ Change 9 (special issue): 139-141.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10113-008-0079-z

Sourdril A, Ladet S, 2008. Le paysage d'une socit maison bas-commingeoise vu au travers des archives cadastrales et photographiques: quand ethnologie et gomatique s'en mlent. Ateliers. L'ethnologue aux prises avec les archives 32: 1-17.

Suzuki R, Shimodaira H, 2006. Pvclust: an R package for assessing the uncertainty in hierarchical clustering. Bioinformatics 22: 15401542.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btl117
PMid:16595560

Thenail C, 2002. Relationships between farm characteristics and the variation of the density of hedgerows at the level of a micro-region of bocage landscape. Study case in Brittany, France. Agr Syst 71: 207-230.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-521X(01)00048-8

Valbuena D, Verburg PH, Bregt AK, 2008. A method to define a typology for agent-based analysis in regional land-use research. Agr Ecosyst Environ 128: 27-36.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2008.04.015

Van Der Ploeg JD, Laurent C, Blondeau F, Bonnafous P, 2009. Farm diversity, classification schemes and multifunctionality. J Environ Manage 90(S2): S124-S131.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2008.11.022
PMid:19135775

Vayssires J, Vigne M, Alary V, Lecomte P, 2011. Integrated participatory modelling of actual farms to support policy making on sustainable intensification. Agr Syst 104: 146-161.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2010.05.008




DOI: 10.5424/sjar/2012103-533-11