Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review

Rocío Jiménez-Granado, Manuel Sánchez-Rodríguez, Cristina Arce, Vicente Rodríguez-Estévez

Abstract


Somatic cell count (SCC) in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI), and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cow’s milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats), prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births), milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking) and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking), seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards.

Keywords


infectious and non-infectious factors; milk quality; mastitis; benchmarking

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aleandri MA, Fagiolo P, Calderini R, Colafrancesco G, Giangolini R, Rosati and De Michelis F, 1996. Studies conducted on somatic cells counts of goats milk. In: Somatic cells and milk of small ruminants (Rubino R, ed). Wageningen Pers. EAAP 77: 65-70.

Bagnicka E, Winnicka A, Jóźwik A, Rzewuska M, Strzałkowska N, Kościuczuk E, Prusak B, Kaba J, Horbańczuk J, Krzyżewski J, 2011. Relationship between somatic cell count and bacterial pathogens in goat milk. Small Rumin Res 100(1): 72-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2011.04.014

Baudry G, Jaubert G, Perrin G, 1993. Typologie des élevages des chévres en fonction de numération cellulaire du lait de troupeau. Rev Med Vet 4: 335-341.

Bergonier D, Lagriffoul G, Berthelot X, Barillet F, 1996. Facteurs de variation non infectieux des comptages de cellules somatiques chez les ovins et caprins laitiers. Wageningen Pers EAAP 77: 112-135.

Bergonier D, De Crémoux R, Rupp R, Lagriffoul G, Berthelot X, 2003. Mastitis of dairy small ruminants. Vet Res 34 (5): 689-716. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/vetres:2003030

Berry E, Broughan J, 2007. Use of the DeLaval cell counter (DCC) on goats' milk. J Dairy Res 74 (3): 345-348. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029907002592

Bintsis T, Angelidis AS, Psoni L, 2008. Modern laboratory practices – Analysis of dairy products. In: Advanced dairy science and technology (Britz TJ & Robinson RK, eds). Wiley Online Library. pp: 183-261. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470697634.ch6

Blagitz MG, Batista CF, Souza FN, Benites NR, Melville PA, Stricagnolo CR, Ricciardi M, Gomes V, Azedo MR, Sanches BGS, Della Libera AMMP, 2008. Perfil celular e microbiológico do leite de ovelhas Santa Inês no período lactante e pós-desmame. Pesq Vet Bras 28: 417-422. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-736X2008000900004

Borges-Pizarro CH, Cordeiro PRC, Bresslau S, 2004. Seasonal variation of goat' milk composition and somatic cell count in Southeastern Brazil. Int Symp Fut Sheep and Goat Dairy Sect. Zaragoza, Spain.

Boulaaba A, Grabowski N, Klein G, 2011. Differential cell count of caprine milk by flow cytometry and microscopy. Small Rumin Res 97 (1–3): 117-123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2011.02.002

Boutinaud M, Jammes H, 2002. Potential uses of milk epithelial cells: a review. Reprod Nutr Dev 42 (2): 133-147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/rnd:2002013

Boyazoglu J, Morand-Fehr P, 2001. Mediterranean dairy sheep and goat products and their quality, a critical review. Small Rumin Res 40 (1): 1-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4488(00)00203-0

Burriel AR, 2000. Somatic cell counts determined by the Coulter or Fossomatic Counter and their relationship to administration of oxytocin. Small Rumin Res 35 (1): 81-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4488(98)00135-7

Calderini P, Colafrancesco R, Fagiolo A, Reitano ME, De Michelis F, 1996. Somatic cells count in milk from mastitis-free goats intensively reared and controlled until the sixth lactation. Wageningen Pers EAAP 77: 177-181.

Capote J, Castro N, Caja G, Fernández G, Briggs H, Argüello A, 2008. Effects of the frequency of milking and lactation stage on milk fractions and milk composition in Tinerfe-a dairy goats. Small Rumin Res 75 (2–3): 252-255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2007.11.004

Castel JM, Ruiz FA, Mena Y, Sánchez-Rodríguez M, 2010. Present situation and future perspectives for goat production systems in Spain. Small Rumin Res 89 (2-3): 207-210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2009.12.045

Cedeen F, Kaya SO, Daskiran I, 2008. Somatic cell, udder and milk yield in goat. Rev Med Vet 159 (4): 237-242.

Chen SX, Wang JZ, Van-Kessel JS, Ren FZ, Zeng SS, 2010. Effect of somatic cell count in goat milk on yield, sensory quality, and fatty acid profile of semisoft cheese. J Dairy Sci 93 (4): 1345-1354. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2366

Contreras A, Sánchez A, 2000. Recuento de células somáticas en peque-os rumiantes II Caprino. Ovis 67: 25-36.

Contreras A, Sánchez A, Corrales JC, Marco JC, 1997. Concepto e importancia de las mamitis caprinas. Ovis 58: 11-31.

Contreras A, Luengo C, Sánchez A, Corrales JC, 2003. The role of intramammary pathogens in dairy goats. Lives Prod Sci 79 (2–3): 273-283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(02)00172-0

Contreras A, Sierra D, Sánchez A, Corrales JC, Marco JC, Paape MJ, Gonzalo C, 2007. Mastitis in small ruminants. Small Rumin Res 68 (1–2): 145-153. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2006.09.011

Coop IE, 1982. Sheep and goat production. Lives Prod Sci 10 (1): 93-94.

Corrales JC, Sánchez A, Sierra D, Marco JC, Contreras A, 1996. Relationship between somatic cell counts and intramammary pathogens in goats. Wageningen Pers EAAP 77: 89-92.

Corrales JC, Contreras A, Sánchez A, Marco J, Rabal F, 1997. Adaptación de las condiciones de la aplicación de la directiva comunitaria 92/46 para el recuento de células somáticas, a nivel de tanque, en leche de ganado caprino. XXI Jornadas Científicas de la Sociedad Espa-ola de Ovinotecnia y Caprinotecnia. Logro-o, Spain. pp: 221-227.

Corrales JC, Sánchez A, Luengo C, Poveda JB, Contreras A, 2004. Effect of clinical contagious agalactia on the bulk tank milk somatic cell count in Murciano-Granadina Goat Herds. J Dairy Sci 87 (10): 3165-3171. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73451-7

De Cremoux R, 2000. Células somáticas en leche de cabra y estrategias de control. Situación en Francia. Ovis 261: 35-40.

De Cremoux R, Pillet R, Ducelliez M, Heuchel V, Puotrel B, 1996. Influence du nombre et du stade de lactacion sur les numerations cellulaires du lait de chèvre. Wageningen Pers. EAAP 77: 161-165.

Delgado-Perti-ez M, Alcalde MJ, Guzmán-Guerrero JL, Castel JM, Mena Y, Caravaca F, 2003. Effect of hygiene-sanitary management on goat milk quality in semi-extensive systems in Spain. Small Rumin Res 47 (1): 51-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4488(02)00239-0

Delgado-Perti-ez M, Guzmán-Guerrero Jl, Mena Y, Castel JM, González-Redondo P, Caravaca FP, 2009. Influence of kid rearing systems on milk yield, kid growth and cost of Florida dairy goats. Small Rumin Res 81 (2-3): 105-111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2008.12.007

Díaz JR, Romero G, Peris C, Fernández N, 2004. Efecto de diferentes condiciones del orde-o mecánico en el estado del pezón. Bovis 118: 49-60.

Droke EA, Paape MJ, Di Carlo AL, 1993. Prevalence of high somatic cell counts in bulk tank goat milk. J Dairy Sci 76 (4): 1035-1039. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77431-7

Dulin AM, Paape MJ, Schultze WD, Weinland BT, 1983. Effect of Parity, stage of lactation, and intramammary infection on concentration of somatic cells and cytoplasmic particles in goat milk. J Dairy Sci 66 (11): 2426-2433. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(83)82101-8

Elizondo J, Aldunate A, Ezcurra P, Gallego I, Saigos E, Ulayare, Izco JM, 2007. Efficiency of the proportion of azidiol on preservation in ewe’s milk samples for analysis. Food Control 18: 185-190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2005.09.011

EOJ, 2004. Regulation (EC) No. 853/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 laying down specific hygiene rules for food of animal origin. Official European Journal Union L139/55 30/04/2004.

Fedele V, Claps S, Rubino R, 1996. Effect of feding systems on somatic cells count in goats. Wageningen Pers EAAP 77: 167-172.

Garcia-Hernández R, Newton G, Horner S, Nuti LC, 2007. Effect of photoperiod on milk yield and quality, and reproduction in dairy goats. Livest Sci 110 (3): 214-220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2006.11.005

Goetsch AL, Zeng SS, Gipson TA, 2011. Factors affecting goat milk production and quality. Small Rumin Res 101 (1–3): 55-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2011.09.025

Gomes V, Melville-Paiva-Della Libera AM, Paiva M, Madureira KM, Araújo WP, 2006. Effect of the stage of lactation on somatic cell counts in healthy goats (Caprae hircus) breed in Brazil. Small Rumin Res 64 (1-2): 30-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2005.03.014

Gonzalo C, 2005. Somatic cell of sheep and goat milks, analytical, sanitary, productive and technological aspects. In: International Dairy Federation (Future of sheep and goats dairy sector) 0501/part 3 (Special Issue): 128-133.

Gonzalo C, Carriedo JA, Baro JA, San Primitivo F, 1994. Factors influencing variation of test day milk yield, somatic cell count, fat, and protein in dairy sheep. J Dairy Sci 77 (6): 1537-1542. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(94)77094-6

Gonzalo C, Martínez JR, San Primitivo F, 1998. Significación y métodos de valoración del recuento celular en la leche de oveja. Ovis 56: 13-25.

Gonzalo C, Ariznabarreta A, Carriedo JA, San Primitivo F, 2002. Mammary pathogens and their relationship to somatic cell count and milk yield losses in dairy ewes. J Dairy Sci 85 (6): 1460-1467. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74214-8

Gonzalo C, Martínez JR, Carriedo JA, San Primitivo F, 2003. Fossomatic cell-counting on ewe milk, comparison with direct microscopy and study of variation factors. J Dairy Sci 86 (1): 138-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73593-0

Gonzalo C, Boixo JC, Carriedo JA, San Primitivo F, 2004. Evaluation of rapid somatic cell counters under different analytical conditions in ovine milk. J Dairy Sci 87: 3623-3628. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73500-6

Gonzalo C, Linage B, Carriedo JA, De la Fuente F, Primitivo FS, 2006. Evaluation of the overall accuracy of the DeLaval cell counter for somatic cell counts in ovine milk. J Dairy Sci 89 (12): 4613-4619. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72511-5

Gonzalo C, Linage B, Carriedo JA, De La Fuente LF, 2008. Short communication: Evaluation of the overall accuracy of the DeLaval cell counter for somatic cell count in ovine milk, effect of soak time in diluted and undiluted milk samples. J Dairy Sci 91 (8): 3114-3118. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1026

Haenlein GFW, 2004. Goat milk in human nutrition. Small Rumin Res 51 (2): 155-163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2003.08.010

Harmon RJ, 1994. Physiology of mastitis and factors affecting somatic cell counts. J Dairy Sci 77 (7): 2103-2112. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(94)77153-8

ISO/IDF, 2008. Milk enumeration of somatic cells. Part 1, Microscopic method reference method). ISO 13366-1. IDF 148-1 (ISO and IDF).

Jiménez-Granado R, Rodríguez-Estévez V, Morantes M, Arce C, Sánchez-Rodríguez M, 2012a. Relationship between reproductive parameters and somatic cell count in dairy goats. Reprod Domest Anim 47 (3): 90-123.

Jiménez-Granado R, Rodríguez-Estévez V, Arce C, Morantes M, López-Fari-a MD, Rodríguez-Zarco M, Sánchez-Rodríguez M, 2012b. El rendimiento productivo en el caprino lechero de raza Florida y su relación con las células somáticas. Proc XXXVII Cong Nac Sociedad Espa-ola de Ovinotecnia y Caprinotecnia, Ciudad Real, Sept 19-21. pp: 363-366.

Jiménez-Granado R, Rodríguez-Estévez V, Arce C, Morantes M, López-Fari-a MD, Pérez-Salas R, Sánchez-Rodríguez M, 2012c. Relación del recuento de células somáticas con la calidad bromatológica de la leche de cabra Florida: grasa y proteína. Proc XXXVII Cong Nac Sociedad Espa-ola de Ovinotecnia y Caprinotecnia, Ciudad Real, Sept 19-21. pp: 159-163.

Kennedy BW, Sethar MS, Tong AKW, Moxley JE, Downey BR, 1982. Environmental factors influencing test-day somatic cell counts in Holsteins. J Dairy Sci 65 (2): 275-280. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(82)82188-7

Komara M, Boutinaud M, Ben-Chedly H, Guinard-Flament J, Marnet PG, 2009. Once-daily milking effects in high-yielding Alpine dairy goats. J Dairy Sci 92 (11): 5447-5455. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2179

Koop G, Nielen M, Van-Werven T, 2009. Bulk milk somatic cell counts are related to bulk milk total bacterial counts and several herd-level risk factors in dairy goats. J Dairy Sci 92 (9): 4355-4364. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2106

Koop G, Van-Werven T, Schuiling HJ, Nielen M, 2010. The effect of subclinical mastitis on milk yield in dairy goats. J Dairy Sci 93 (12): 5809-5817. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3544

Koop G, Van-Werven T, Toft N, Nielen M, 2011. Estimating test characteristics of somatic cell count to detect Staphylococcus aureus-infected dairy goats using latent class analysis. J Dairy Sci 94 (6): 2902-2911. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3929

Kosev K, Tzolov S, Denev S, Michailova G, Koleva M, 1996. Influence of lactation and type of milking on the somatic cell count in goat's milk. Wageningen Pers EAAP 77: 227-229.

Leitner G, Merin U, Glickman A, Weisblit L, Krifucks O, Shwimmer A, Saran A, 2004. Factors influencing milk and quality in assaf sheep and goats crossbreds. South Afr J Anim Sci 31 (1): 162-164.

Leitner G, Merin U, Lavi Y, Egber A, Silanikove N, 2007. Aetiology of intramammary infection and its effect on milk composition in goat flocks. J Dairy Res 74 (2): 186-193. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029906002299

Leitner G, Silanikove N, Merin U, 2008. Estimate of milk and curd yield loss of sheep and goats with intrammamary infection and its relation to somatic cell count. Small Rumin Res 74 (1-3): 221-225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2007.02.009

Lerondelle C, Richard Y, Issartial J, 1992. Factors affecting somatic cell counts in goat milk. Small Rumin Res 8 (1–2): 129-139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0921-4488(92)90014-U

Long PE, Heavner JE, Ziv G, Geleta JN, Nepote K, 1984. Depletion of antibiotics from the mammary gland of goats. J Dairy Sci 67 (3): 707-712. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(84)81357-0

Luengo C, Sánchez A, Corrales JC, Fernández C, Contreras A, 2004. Influence of intramammary infection and non-infection factors on somatic cell counts in dairy goats. J Dairy Res 71 (2): 169-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029904000019

Malinowski E, Smulski S, Gehrke M, Klossowska A, Arczyńska A, Kaczmarowski M, 2008. Effect of storage conditions and preservation with Bronopol on somatic cell count with the DeLaval cell counter in cow milk. Med Weter 64 (11): 1299-1303.

Manlongat N, Yang TJ, Hinckley LS, Bendel RB, Krider M, 1998. Physiologic chemoattractant induced migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in milk. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 5: 375-381.

Manzur A, 2007. Estudios de orde-o mecánico en ganado caprino. Doctoral Thesis. Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Spain. 138 pp.

Manzur A, Díaz JR, Mehdid A, Fernández M, Peris C, 2012. Effect of mik-line milking systems on milking characteristics in goats. J Dairy Res 79 (3): 375-382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029912000362

Marco JC, Jacquin C, Esnal A, Jiménez R, Sánchez M, Gonzalo C, 2012. Los programas de mejora de la calidad de la leche: Su impacto en la rentabilidad de las explotaciones de caprino lechero. Tierras Caprino 2: 8-19.

Marogna G, Rolesu S, Lollai S, Tola S, Leori G, 2010. Clinical findings in sheep farms affected by recurrent bacterial mastitis. Small Rumin Res 88 (2–3): 119-125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2009.12.019

Marogna G, Pilo C, Vidili A, Tola S, Schianchi G, Leori SG, 2012. Comparison of clinical findings, microbiological results, and farming parameters in goat herds affected by recurrent infectious mastitis. Small Rumin Res 102 (1): 74-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2011.08.013

Martínez B, 2000. El recuento de células somáticas en la leche de cabra, factores de variación y efecto sobre la producción y composición de la leche. Tesis Doctoral. Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Spain. 307 pp.

Martínez B, Peris C, Vega S, 1999. Relación entre el recuento de células somáticas y los patógenos intramamarios aislados en el ganado caprino lechero de la Comunidad Valenciana. XXIV Jornadas Científicas, Sociedad Espa-ola de Ovinotecnia y Caprinotecnia, Soria, Spain. pp: 325-329.

Martínez JR, Gonzalo C, Carriedo JA, San Primitivo F, 2003. Effect of freezing on fossomatic cell counting in ewe milk. J Dairy Sci 86 (8): 2583-2587. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73853-3

McDougall S, Voermans M, 2002. Influence of estrus on somatic cell count in dairy goats. J Dairy Sci 85 (2): 378-383. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74084-8

McDougall S, Anniss FM, Cullum AA, 2002. Effect of transport stress on somatic cell counts in dairy goats. Proc N Z Soc Anim Prod 62: 16-18.Mehdid MA, Díaz JR, Manzur A, Peris C, 2010. Non-infectious transient elevations of somatic cells count in goat’s milk. Proc XXXV Cong Nac Sociedad Espa-ola de Ovinotecnia y Caprinotecnia, Valladolid, Sept 22-24. pp: 121-125.

Min BR, Tomita G, Hart SP, 2007. Effect of subclinical intramammary infection on somatic cell counts and chemical composition of goats' milk. J Dairy Res 74 (2): 204-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029906002378

Morand-Fehr P, Fedele V, Decandia M, Le Frileux Y, 2007. Influence of farming and feeding systems on composition and quality of goat and sheep milk. Small Rumin Res 68 (2-3): 20-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2006.09.019

Moroni P, Pisoni G, Ruffo G, Boettcher PJ, 2005. Risk factors for intramammary infections and relationship with somatic-cell counts in Italian dairy goats. Prev Vet Med 69 (3–4): 163-173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2004.10.013

Moroni P, Pisoni G, Savoini G, Van-Lier E, Acu-a S, Damián JP, Meikle A, 2007. Influence of estrus of dairy goats on somatic cell count, milk traits, and sex steroid receptors in the mammary gland. J Dairy Sci 90 (2): 790-797. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(07)71563-1

Neveu C, Riaublanc A, Miranda G, Chich JF, Martín P, 2002. Is the apocrine milk secretion process observed in the goat species rooted in the perturbation of the intracellular transport mechanism induced by defective alleles at the alpha(s1)-Cn locus? Reprod Nutr Dev 42 (2): 163-172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/rnd:2002015

Nudda A, Bencini R, Mijatovic S, Pulina G, 2002. The yield and composition of milk in Sarda, Awassi, and Merino sheep milked unilaterally at different frequencies. J Dairy Sci 85 (11): 2879-2884. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74375-0

Nunes GR, Blagitz MG, Freitas CB, Souza FN, Ricciardi M, Stricagnolo CR, Sanches BGS, Azedo MR, Sucupira MCA, Della Libera AMMP, 2008. Evaluation of the indicators of inflammation in the diagnosis of ovine matitis. Arqu Ins Biol 75 (3): 271-278.

Paape MJ, Capuco AV, 1997. Cellular defense mechanisms in the udder and lactation of goats. J Anim Sci 75: 556-565.

Paape MJ, Poutrel B, Contreras A, Marco JC, Capuco AV, 2001. Milk somatic cells and lactation in small ruminants. J Dairy Sci 84: 237-244. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(01)70223-8

Paape MJ, Wiggans GR, Bannerman DD, Thomas DL, Sanders AH, Contreras A, Moroni P, Miller RH, 2007. Monitoring goat and sheep milk somatic cell counts. Small Rumin Res 68 (1–2): 114-125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2006.09.014

Pérez-Baena I, Blasco E, Sánchez-Quinche A, Romero T, Mazón J, Peris C, 2012. Efecto de la sarna sobre la producción y la composición de la leche en cabras. Revista Albéitar 158: 10-11.

Peris C, Díaz JR, Fernández N, Rodríguez M, Molina P, Orres A, 2002a. Influencia del orde-o mecánico sobre la mamitis I. IV Jornadas Científicas Internacionales de Ovinotecnia y Caprinotecnia, SEOC, Valencia. Spain. pp: 360-366.

Peris C, Segura C, Palomares JL, Rodríguez M, Díaz JR, Fernández N, 2002b. La calidad de la leche de cabra producida en las comunidades autónomas de Valencia y Murcia. IV Jornadas Científicas Internacionales de Ovinotecnia y Caprinotecnia, (SEOC). Valencia. Spain. pp: 360-366.

Perrin GG, Baudry C, 1993. Numérations cellulaires du lait de chèvre. Le Lait 73: 489-497. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/lait:19935-648

Persson Y, Olofsson I, 2011. Direct and indirect measurement of somatic cell count as indicator of intramammary infection in dairy goats. Acta Vet Scand 53: 15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1751-0147-53-15

Pettersen KE, 1981. Cell content in goat's milk. Acta Vet Scand 22: 226-237.

Pirisi A, Lauret A, Dubeuf JP, 2007. Basic and incentive payments for goat and sheep milk in relation to quality. Small Rumin Res 68 (1-2): 167-178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2006.09.009

Poutrel B, De Crémoux R, Ducelliez M, Verneau D, 1997. Control of intramammary infections in goats, impact on somatic cell counts. J Anim Sci 75 (2): 566-570.

Randy HA, Caler WA, Miner WA, Miner WH, Atwood AC, Howarg DB, 1991. Effect of lactation number, year, and milking management practices on milk yield and SCC of french Alpine dairy goats. J Dairy Sci 74 (1): 311.

Raynal-Ljutovac K, Pirisi A, De Crémoux R, Gonzalo C, 2007. Somatic cells of goat and sheep milk: Analytical, sanitary, productive and technological aspects. Small Rumin Res 68 (1–2): 126-144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2006.09.012

Rémond B, Pomiès D, Dupont D, Hilliard Y, 2004. Once-a-day milking of multiparous Holstein cows throughout the entire lactation, milk yield and composition, and nutritional status. Anim Res 53 (3): 201-212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/animres:2004014

Ribeiro AC, Ribeiro SDA, 2010. Specialty products made from goat milk. Small Rumin Res 89: 225-233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2009.12.048

Rota AM, Gonzalo C, Rodríguez PL, Rojas AI, Martin L, Tovar JJ, 1993a. Somatic cell types in goats milk in relation to total cell count, stage and number of lactation. Small Rumin Res 12 (1): 89-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0921-4488(93)90041-F

Rota AM, Gonzalo C, Rodríguez PL, Rojas AI, Martín L, Tovar JJ, 1993b. Effects of stage of lactation and parity on somatic cell counts in milk of Verata goats and algebraic models of their lactation curves. Small Rumin Res 12 (2): 211-219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0921-4488(93)90085-V

Salama AAK, Such X, Caja G, Rovai M, Casals R, Albanell E, Marín MP, Martí A, 2003. Effects of once versus twice daily milking throughout lactation on milk yield and milk composition in dairy goats. J Dairy Sci 86 (5): 1673-1680. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73753-9

Sánchez A, Corrales JC, Marco J, Contreras A, 1998a. Aplicación del recuento de células somáticas para el control de las mamitis caprinas. Ovis 54: 37-51.

Sánchez A, Luengo C, Corrales JC, Contreras A, 1998b. Modificación del recuento celular en la leche de cabras según la serología frente al virus de la artritis-encefalitis caprina y la infección intramamaria de etiología bacteriana. XV Reunión de Técnicos Especialistas en Mamitis y Calidad de Leche, Lugo, Spain.

Sánchez A, Corrales JC, Luengo C, Contreras A, 1999. Intramammary pathogens and somatic cell counts in dairy goats. Wageningen Pers EAAP 95: 124-129.

Sánchez A, Sierra D, Luengo C, Corrales JC, Morales CT, Contreras A, Gonzalo C, 2005. Influence of storage and preservation on fossomatic cell count and composition of goat milk. J Dairy Sci 88 (9): 3095-3100. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)72991-X

Sánchez J, Montes P, Jiménez A, Andres S, 2007. Prevention of clinical mastitis with barium selenate in dairy goats from a selenium-deficient area. J Dairy Sci 90 (5): 2350-2354. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2006-616

Sánchez-Rodríguez M, Gómez Castro AG, Mata Moreno C, Doménech García V, López Baldán D, Romero AM, Cabello A, 2000. Resultados productivos del reba-o experimental de raza Florida. FEAGAS 1 (18): 105-107.

Sánchez-Rodríguez M, Gil-Rubio JM, Beltrán-Hermoso M, Mu-oz-Cobos I, Santos-Alcudia R, Martos-Peinado J, 2005. Calidad de la leche en el grupo caprino de Covap y su relación con parámetros técnicos y de manejo. IX Jornadas Científicas de la Sociedad Espa-ola de Ovinotecnia y Caprinotecnia, Granada, Spain. pp: 89-92.

Sánchez-Rodríguez M, Martos J, Aparicio D, Martín D, García A, García–Schiafino S, Mu-oz EM, 2008. Evolución del recuento de células somáticas en cabras lecheras tras la prueba de campo con tratamiento de secado. XII Jornadas Científicas de la Sociedad Espa-ola de Ovinotecnia y Caprinotecnia, Granada, Spain. pp: 498-502.

Sierra D, Sánchez A, Corrales JC, Contreras A, 1998. Recuentos celulares diferenciales en leche de ganado caprino. XV Reunión de Técnicos Especialistas en Mamitis y Calidad de la Leche. Lugo, 24 Noviembre.

Sierra D, Sánchez A, Corrales JC,Contreras A, 1999. Differential cell counts in goat's milk. Milking and milk production of dairy sheep and goats. Wageningen Pers EAAP 95: 178-180.

Sierra D, Sánchez A, Luengo C, Corrales JC, Morales CT, Contreras A, Gonzalo C, 2006. Temperature effects on fossomatic cell counts in goats milk. Int Dairy J 16: 385-387. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2005.04.004

Silanikove N, Leitner G, Merin U, Prosser CG, 2010. Recent advances in exploiting goat's milk: quality, safety and production aspects. Small Rumin Res 89 (2–3): 110-124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2009.12.033

Sinapis E, Vlachos L, 1999. Influence du niveau de vide de la machine á traire et des facteurs zootechniques sur les comptages de cellules somatiques chez les chévres locales greques [Milking and milk production of dairy sheep and goats]. Wageningen Pers. EAAP 95: 513-518.

Sordillo LM, Streicher KL, 2002. Mammary gland immunity and mastitis susceptibility. J Mam Gland Biol Neopl 7: 135-146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1020347818725

Souza FN, Blagitz MG, Penna CFAM, Della Libera AMMP, Heinemann MB, Cerqueira MMOP, 2012. Somatic cell count in small ruminants, friend or foe? Small Rumin Res 107 (2): 65-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2012.04.005

Tierras Ganadería, 2011. Preocupación por las células somáticas. Tierras Ganadería 177: 10-12.

US PMO, 2009. Pasteurized milk ordinance (2009 revision) of the United States Food and Drug Administration. Available in http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/GuidanceRegulation/UCM209789.pdf. [November 26, 2012].

Wilson DJ, Stewart KN, Sears PM, 1995. Effects of stage of lactation, production, parity and season on somatic cell counts in infected and uninfected dairy goats. Small Rumin Res 16 (2): 165-169. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0921-4488(95)00622-R

Zeng SS, Escobar EN, 1995. Effect of parity and milk production on somatic cell count, standard plate count and composition of goat milk. Small Rumin Res 17 (3): 269-274. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0921-4488(95)00658-8

Zeng SS, Escobar EN, Brown-Crowder I, 1996. Evaluation of screening tests for detection of antibiotic residues in goat milk. Small Rumin Res 21 (2): 155-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0921-4488(95)00822-5

Zeng SS, Escobar EN, Popham T, 1997. Daily variations in somatic cell count, composition, and production of Alpine goat milk. Small Rumin Res 26 (3): 253-260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4488(96)01002-4




DOI: 10.5424/sjar/2014121-3803