Simulating of Top-Cross system for enhancement of antioxidants in maize grain

Jelena Vancetovic, Sladjana Zilic, Sofija Bozinovic, Dragana Ignjatovic-Micic

Abstract


Blue maize (Zea mays L.) is grown for its high content of antioxidants. Conversion of yellow and white to blue maize is time consuming because several genes affect blue color. After each backcross selfing is needed for color to be expressed. In order to overcome the problem of time and effort needed for conversion to blue kernel color, we have set a pilot experiment simulating a Top-cross system for increasing antioxidants in maize grain. The idea is to alternately sow six rows of sterile standard quality hybrid and two rows of blue maize in commercial production. Five commercial ZP hybrids were crossed with a blue pop-corn population. Xenia effect caused by cross-pollination produced blue grain on all hybrids in the same year. Chemical analyses of the grains of five selfed original hybrids, five cross-pollinated hybrids and selfed blue popcorn pollinator were performed. Cross-fertilization with blue popcorn had different impact on antioxidant capacity and phytonutrients, increasing them significantly in some but not all cross-pollinated hybrids. Popcorn blue pollinator had higher values for all the analyzed traits than either selfed or cross-pollinated hybrids. Selfed vs. pollinated hybrids showed significant difference for total antioxidant capacity (p<0.1), total phenolics and total yellow pigments (p<0.01), with the increase of total phenolics and decrease of total yellow pigments in pollinated ones. Total flavonoids showed a little non-significant decrease in pollinated hybrids, while total anthocyanins were not detected in selfed yellow hybrids. Blue maize obtained this way has shown good potential for growing high quality phytonutrient genotypes.

Keywords


anthocyanins; blue kernels; flavonoids; phenolics; xenia; Zea mays

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdel-Aal ESM, Hucl P, 1999. A rapid method for quantifying total anthocyanins in blue aleurone and purple pericarp wheats. Cereal Chem 76: 350-354. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM.1999.76.3.350

Adom KK, Liu RH, 2002. Antioxidant activity of grains. J Agric Food Chem 50: 6182-6187. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf0205099

Antoine C, Peyron S, Lullien-Pellerin V, Abecassis J, Rouau X, 2004. Wheat bran tissue fractionation using biochemical markers. J Cereal Sci 39: 387-393. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2004.02.001

Aoki H, Kuze N, Kato Y, 2000. Anthocyanins isolated from purple corn (Zea mays L.). FFI Journal of Japan. Available in: http://www.ffcr.or.jp/zaidan/ffcrhome.nsf/7bd44c20b0dc562649256502001b65e9/c6698773361b42b249256ba60018e581/$FILE/anthocyanin-FFIJ199.pdf.

Betran J, Bockholt AJ, Rooney LW, 2000. Blue corn. In: Specialty corns (Hallauer AR, ed.). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp: 293-301.

Chandler VL, Radicella JP, Robbins TP, Chen J, Turks D, 1989. Two regulatory genes of the maize anthocyanin pathway are homologous: isolation of B utilizing R genomic sequences. Plant Cell 1: 1175-1183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1105/tpc.1.12.1175

Cortes GA, Salinas MY, San Martin-Martinez E, Martinez-Bustos F, 2006. Stability of anthocyanins of blue maize after nixtamalization of separated pericarp-germ tip cap and endosperm fractions. J Cereal Sci 43: 57-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2005.05.003

Del Pozo-Insfran D, Brenes CH, Serna Saldivar SO, Talcott ST, 2006. Polyphenolic and antioxidant content of white and blue corn (Zea mays L.) products. Food Res Int 39 (6): 696-703. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2006.01.014

Denney JO, 1992. Xenia includes metaxenia. HortSci 27: 722-728.

Dooner HK, Robbins TP, Jorgensen RA, 1991. Genetic and developmental control of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Annu Rev Genet 25: 173-199. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ge.25.120191.001133

Escribano-Bailón MT, Santos-Buelga C, Rivas-Gonzalo JC, 2004. Anthocyanins in cereals. J Chromatogr A 1054: 129-141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2004.08.152

Fimognari C, Berti F, Nüsse M, Cantelli-Forti G, Hrelia P, 2004. Induction of apoptosis in two human leukemia cell lines as well as differentiation in human promyelocytic cells by cyanidin-3-Ơ-gluco-pyraranoside. Biochem Pharm 67: 2047-2056. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2004.02.021

Hadži-Tašković Šukalović V, Dodig D, Žilić S, Basić Z, Kandić V, Delić N, Miritescu M, 2013. Genotypic and environmental variation of bread and durum wheat proteins and antioxidant compounds. Rom Agric Res 30: 125-134.

Hu QP, Xu JG, 2011. Profiles of carotenoids, anthocyanins, phenolics, and antioxidant activity of selected color waxy corn grains during maturation. J Agric Food Chem 59: 2026-2033. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf104149q

Kermicle JL, 2006. A selfish gene governing pollen-pistil compatibility confers reproductive isolation between maize relatives. Genetics 172: 499-506. http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/genetics.105.048645

Kroon PA, Williamson G, 1999. Hydroxycinnamates in plants and food: Current and future perspectives. J Sci Food Agric 79: 355-361.

Lago C, Landoni M, Cassani E, Doria E, Nielsen E, Pilu R, 2013. Study and characterization of a novel functional food: purple popcorn. Mol Breeding 31: 575-585. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11032-012-9816-6

Letchworth MB, Lambert RJ, 1998. Pollen parent effects on oil, protein, and starch concentration in maize kernels. Crop Sci 38: 363-367. http://dx.doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1998.0011183X003800020015x

Liu YE, Liu P, Dong ST, Zhang JW, 2010. Hormonal changes caused by the xenia effect during grain filling of normal corn and high-oil corn crosses. Crop Sci 50: 215-221. http://dx.doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2009.04.0186

Lopez-Martinez LX, Oliart-Ros RM, Valerio-Alfaro G, Lee CH, Parkin KL, Garcia HS, 2009. Antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds and anthocyanins content of eighteen strains of Mexican maize. LWT-Food Sci Techn 42: 1187-1192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2008.10.010

Lopez-Martinez LX, Parkin KL, Garcia HS, 2011. Phase II-inducing, polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity of corn (Zea mays L.) from phenotypes of white, blue, red and purple colors processed into Masa and Tortillas. Plant Food Hum Nutr 66 (1): 41-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11130-011-0210-z

Moreno YS, Sánchez GS, Hernandez DR, Lobato NR, 2005. Characterization of anthocyanin extracts from maize kernels. J Chromatogr Sci 43: 483-487. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/43.9.483

Pascual-Teresa S, Santos-Buelga C, Rivas-Gonzalo JC, 2002. LC-MS analysis of anthocyanins from purple corn cob. J Sci Food Agric 82: 1003-1006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.1143

Pilu R, Piazza P, Petroni K, Ronchi A, Martin C, Tonelli C, 2003. pl-bol3, a complex allele of the anthocyanin regulatory pl1 locus that arose in a naturally occurring maize population. Plant J 36: 510-521. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-313X.2003.01898.x

Revilla P, Landa A, Rodriguez VM, Romay MC, Ordas A, Malvar RA, 2008. Maize for bread under organic agriculture. Span J Agric Res 6: 241-247. http://dx.doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2008062-315

Rodriguez VM, Soengas P, Landa A, Ordás A, Revilla P, 2013. Effects of selection for color intensity on antioxidant capacity in maize (Zea mays L.). Euphytica 193: 339-345. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10681-013-0924-0

Rondini L, Peyrat-Maillard MN, Marsset-Baglieri A, Berset C, 2002. Sulfated ferulic acid is the main in vivo metabolite found after short-term investigation of free ferulic acid in rats. J Agric Food Chem 50: 3037-3041. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf011295i

Rooney LW, Serna-Saldivar SO, 2003. Food uses of whole corn and dry-milled fractions. In: Corn chemistry and technology, 2nd ed. (White P, Johnson P, eds.). AACC Int, MN, USA, pp: 493-535.

Serpen A, Capuano E, Fogliano V, Gokmen V, 2007. A new procedure to measure the antioxidant activity of insoluble food components. J Agric Food Chem 55: 7676-7681. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf071291z

Serpen A, Gökmen V, Pellegrini N, Fogliano V, 2008. Direct measurement of the total antioxidant capacity of cereal products. J Cereal Sci 48: 816-820. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2008.06.002

Setchell KDR, Aedin C, 1999. Dietary isoflavones biological effects and relevance to human health. J Nutr 129: 7585-7675.

Thomison PR, Geyer AB, Lotz LD, Siegrist HJ, Dobbels TL, 2002. TopCross high-oil corn production: agronomic performance. Agron J 94: 290-299. http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/agronj2002.0290

Thomison PR, Geyer AB, Lotz LD, Siegrist HJ, Dobbels TL, 2003. Top-cross high oil corn production: select grain quality attributes. Agron J 95:147-154. http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/agronj2003.0147

Tsuda T, Horio F, Uchida K, Aoki H, Osawa T, 2003. Dietary cyanidin 3-Ơ-β-D-glucoside-rich purple corn color prevents obesity and ameliorates hyperglicemia in mice. Nutrient-Gene Interact: 2125-2130.

Vazquez-Carrillo MG, Salinas-Moreno Y, Flores-Gomez L, Palacios-Rojas N, Scott MP, 2006. Anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity in maize (Zea mays L.) races. Proc 4th Int Cong on Pigments in Food. A challenge to life sciences. Stuttgart-Hohenheim (Germany), Oct 9-12. pp: 35-37.

Westgate ME, Lizaso J., Batchelor W, 2003. Quantitative relationships between pollen shed density and grain yield in Maize. Crop Sci 43: 934-942. http://dx.doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2003.9340

Zilic S, Serpens A, Akrlhoglu G, Gokmen V, Vancetovic J, 2012. Phenolic compounds, carotenoids, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity of colored maize (Zea mays L.) kernels. J Agric Food Chem 60: 1224-1231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf204367z




DOI: 10.5424/sjar/2014122-5222