Effectiveness of inorganic and organic mulching for soil salinity and sodicity control in a grapevine orchard drip-irrigated with moderately saline waters

Ramón Aragüés, Eva T. Medina, Ignacio Clavería

Abstract


Soil mulching is a sensible strategy to reduce evaporation, accelerate crop development, reduce erosion and assist in weed control, but its efficiency for soil salinity control is not as well documented. The benefits of inorganic (plastic) and organic (grapevine pruning residues) mulching for soil salinity and sodicity control were quantified in a grapevine orchard (cultivars ‘Autumn’ Royal and ‘Crimson’) drip-irrigated with moderately saline waters. Soil samples were taken at the beginning and end of the 2008 and 2009 irrigation seasons in six vines of each cultivar and mulching treatment. Soil saturation extract electrical conductivity (ECe), chloride (Cle) and sodium adsorption ratio (SARe) values increased in all treatments of both grapevines along the irrigation seasons, but the increases were much lower in the mulched than in the bare soils due to reduced evaporation losses and concomitant decreases in salt evapo-concentration. The absolute salinity and sodicity daily increases in ‘Autumn’ and ‘Crimson’ 2008 and in ‘Crimson’ 2009 were on the average 44% lower in the plastic and 76% lower in the organic mulched soils than in the bare soil. The greater efficiency of the organic than the plastic mulch in ‘Crimson’ 2009 was attributed to the leaching of salts by a precipitation of 104 mm that infiltrated the organic mulch but was intercepted by the plastic mulch. Although further work is needed to substantiate these results, the conclusion is that the plastic mulch and, particularly, the organic mulch were more efficient than the bare soil for soil salinity and sodicity control.

Keywords


plastic mulching; plant-residues mulching; soil chloride; drip irrigation; water quality; Vitis vinifera

Full Text:

PDF

References


Allen RG, Pereira LS, Rais D, Smith M, 1998. Crop evapotranspiration. Guidelines for computing crop water requirements. Irrig Drain Paper No. 56, FAO, Rome. 301 pp.

Ayers RS, Westcot DW, 1985. Water quality for agriculture. Irrig Drain Paper No. 29 (Rev 1), FAO, Rome. 174 pp.

Bezborodov GA, Shadmanovb DK, Mirhashimovb RT, Yuldashevc T, Qureshid AS, Noblee AD, Qadir M, 2010. Mulching and water quality effects on soil salinity and sodicity dynamics and cotton productivity in Central Asia. Agric Ecosyst Environ 138: 95-102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2010.04.005

Chaudhry MR, Aziz AM, Sidhu M, 2004. Mulching impact on moisture conservation, soil properties and plant growth. Pakistan J Water Res 82: 1-8.

Díaz F, Jimenez CC, Tejedor M, 2005. Influence of the thickness and grain size of tephra mulch on soil water evaporation. Agric Water Manage 74: 47-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2004.10.011

Dong H, Li W, Tang W, Zhang D, 2009. Early plastic mulching increases stand establishment and lint yield of cotton in saline fields. Field Crops Res 111: 269-275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2009.01.001

Hanson B, 2012. Drip irrigation and salinity. In: Agricultural Salinity Assessment and Management. Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice No. 71 (2nd edition), Chapter 17 (Wallender WW & Tanji KK Eds), American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, USA. pp. 539-560.

Klute A, 1986. Methods of soil analysis. Agron Monogr No. 9. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, WI, USA.

Morales-Garcia D, Stewart KA, Seguin P, Madramootoo Ch, 2011. Supplemental saline drip irrigation applied at different growth stages of two bell pepper cultivars grown with or without mulch in non-saline soil. Agric Water Manage 98: 893-898. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2010.11.012

Pang HC, Li YY, Yang JS, Liang YS, 2010. Effect of brackish water irrigation and straw mulching on soil salinity and crop yields under monsoonal climatic conditions. Agric Water Manage 97: 1971-1977. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2009.08.020

Rahman MJ, Uddin MS, Bagum SA, Mondol AT, Zaman MM, 2006. Effect of mulches on the growth and yield of tomato in the costal area of Bangladesh under rainfed condition. Int J Sustain Crop Prod 1: 6-10.

SAS Institute, 2004. SAS/STAT User's Guide, Release 9.0, Statistical Analysis Institute Inc, Cary, NC.

Soil Survey Staff, 1999. Soil taxonomy. A basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys, 2nd ed. USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington, DC.

Tiwari KN, Mal PK, Singh RM, Chattopadhyay A, 1998. Response of okra to drip irrigation under mulch and non-mulch conditions. Agric Water Manage 38: 91-102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3774(98)00063-8

Wan S, Kang Y, Wang D, Liu SP, 2010. Effect of saline water on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) yield and water use under drip irrigation in North China. Agric Water Manage 98: 105-113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2010.08.003

Wang R, Kang Y, Wan S, Hu W, Liu S, Liu S, 2011. Salt distribution and the growth of cotton under different drip irrigation regimes in a saline area. Agric Water Manage 100: 58-69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2011.08.005

Wu L, Amrhein C, Oster JD, 2012. Salinity assessment of irrigation water using WATSUIT. In: Agricultural Salinity Assessment and Management. Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice No. 71 (2nd edition), Chapter 25 (Wallender WW & Tanji KK Eds), American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, USA pp: 787-800.

Yang YM, Liu XJ, Li WQ, Li CZ, 2006. Effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production in desalinized soil in Heilonggang region of North China. J Zhejiang Univ-Sc 7: 858-867. http://dx.doi.org/10.1631/jzus.2006.B0858

Zhang QT, Inoue M, Inosako K, Irshad M, Kondo K, Qui GY, Wang SH, 2008. Ameliorative effect of mulching on water use efficiency of swiss chard salt accumulation under saline irrigation. J Food Agric Environ 3-4: 480-485.




DOI: 10.5424/sjar/2014122-5466