Organic amendments conditions on the control of Fusarium crown and root rot of asparagus caused by three Fusarium spp.

Ana I. Borrego-Benjumea, José M. Melero-Vara, María J. Basallote-Ureba


Fusarium oxysporum (Fo), F. proliferatum (Fp) and F. solani (Fs) are causal agents associated with roots of asparagus affected by crown and root rot, a disease inflicting serious losses worldwide. The propagule viability of Fusarium spp. was determined on substrate artificially infested with Fo5, Fp3 or Fs2 isolates, amended with either poultry manure (PM), its pellet (PPM), or olive residue compost (ORC) and, thereafter, incubated at 30 or 35°C for different periods. Inoculum viability was significantly affected by these organic amendments (OAs) in combination with temperature and incubation period. The greatest reduction in viability of Fo5 and Fs2 occurred with PPM and loss of viability achieved was higher at 35°C than at 30ºC, and longer incubation period (45 days). However, the viability of Fp3 did not decrease greatly in most of the treatments, as compared to the infested and un-amended control, when incubated at 30ºC. After incubation, seedlings of asparagus `Grande´ were transplanted into pots containing substrates infested with the different species of Fusarium. After three months in greenhouse, symptoms severity in roots showed highly significant decreases, but Fp3 caused lower severity than Fo5 and Fs2. Severity reduction was particularly high at 30ºC (by 15 days incubation for Fs2 and by 30-45 days for Fo5), after PPM treatment, as well as PM-2% for Fo5 and Fs2 incubated during 30 and 45 days at both temperatures, and with ORC (15-30 days incubation). Moreover, assessment of plants fresh weight showed significantly high increases in Fo5 and Fs2, with some rates of the three OAs tested, depending on incubation period and temperature.


biofumigation; Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi; Fusarium proliferatum; Fusarium solani; olive residue compost; pelleted poultry manure; poultry manure

Full Text:



Abbasi PA, Al-Dahmani J, Sahin F, Hoitink HAJ, Miller SA, 2002. Effect of compost amendments on disease severity and yield of tomato in conventional and organic production systems. Plant Disease 86: 156-161.

Abbasi PA., Lazarovits G., Conn KL, 2008. Enhancing biological control of soilborne plant diseases by organic soil amendments. In: Plant-Microbe Interactions; Barka EA, Clément C (eds). pp: 319-343. Research Signpost, Kerala, India.

Avilés M, Borrero C, Trillas MI, 2011. Review on compost as an inducer of disease suppression in plants grown in soilless culture. In: Compost III. Dynamic Soil, Dynamic Plant 5 (Special Issue 2); Ferrer AS (ed). pp: 1-11. Global Science Books Ltd., Ikenobe, Japan.

Basallote-Ureba MJ, Vela-Delgado MD, Macías FJ, López-Herrera CJ, Melero-Vara J, 2010. Soil chemical treatments for the control of Fusarium wilt of carnation in Spain. Acta Hortic 883: 175-179.

Blok WJ, Bollen GJ, 1995. Fungi on the roots and stem bases of asparagus in the Netherlands: Species and pathogenicity. Eur J Plant Pathol 101: 15-24.

Blok WJ, Bollen GJ, 1997. Host specificity and vegetative compatibility of Ducth isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi. Can J Bot 75: 383-393.

Blok WJ, Lamers JG, Termorshuizen AJ, Bollen GJ, 2000. Control of soilborne plant pathogens by incorporating fresh organic amendments followed by tarping. Phytopathology 90: 253-259.

Bonanomi G, Antignani V, Pane C, Scala F, 2007. Suppression of soilborne fungal diseases with organic amendments. J Plant Pathol 89: 311-324.

Borrego-Benjumea A, Basallote-Ureba MJ, Abbasi PA, Lazarovits G, Melero-Vara JM, 2014a. Effects of incubation temperature on the organic amendment-mediated control of Fusarium wilt of tomato. Ann Appl Biol 164: 453-463.

Borrego-Benjumea A, Basallote-Ureba MJ, Melero-Vara JM, Abbasi PA, 2014b. Characterization of Fusarium isolates from asparagus fields and influence of soil organic amendments on Fusarium crown and root rot. Phytopathology 104: 403-415.

Borrero C, Ordovás J, Trillas MI, Avilés M, 2006. Tomato Fusarium wilt suppressiveness. The relationship between the organic plant growth media and their microbial communities as characterised by Biolog®. Soil Biol Biochem 38: 1631-1637.

Bouhot D, Rouxel F, 1971. Technique sélective et quantitative d'analyse des Fusarium oxysporum et Fusarium solani dans le sol. Mode d'emploi. Annals de Phytopathologie 3: 251-254.

Chen Y, Gamliel A, Stapleton JJ, Aviad T, 1991. Chemical, physical, and microbial changes related to plant growth in disinfested soils. In: Soil solarization; Katan J, DeVay JE (eds). pp: 103-129. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.

Conn KL, Lazarovits G, 1999. Impact of animal manures on verticillium wilt, potato scab, and soil microbial populations. Can J Plant Pathol 21: 81-92.

Corpas-Hervias C, Melero-Vara JM, Molinero-Ruiz ML, Zurera-Muñoz C, Basallote-Ureba MJ, 2006. Characterization of isolates of Fusarium spp. obtained from asparagus in Spain. Plant Dis 90: 1441-1451.

Davey CB, 1996. Nursery soil management-organic amendments. In: National proceedings, Forest and Conservation Nursery Associations; Landis TD, Douth DB (tech. cords). pp: 6-18. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-389, USDA Forest Service PNWRS, Portland, OR, USA.

Elmer WH, 2001. Fusarium diseases of asparagus. In: Fusarium, Paul E. Nelson Memorial Symposium; Summerell BA, Leslie JF, Backhouse D, Bryden WL, L. W. Burgess LW (eds). pp: 248-262. Am. Phytopath. Soc. Press, St. Paul, MN, USA.

Elmer WH, Johnson DA, Mink GI, 1996. Epidemiology and management of the diseases causal to asparagus decline. Plant Dis 80: 117-125.

Elmer WH, Pignatello JJ, 2011. Effect of biochar amendments on mycorrhizal associations and Fusarium crown and root rot of asparagus in replant soils. Plant Dis 95: 960-966.

Escuadra GM, Amemiya Y, 2008. Suppression of Fusarium wilt of spinach with compost amendments. J Gen Plant Pathol 74: 267-274.

Gamliel A, Stapleton JJ, 1993. Effect of chicken compost or ammonium phosphate and solarization on pathogen control, rhizosphere microorganisms and lettuce growth. Plant Dis 77: 886-891.

Gamliel A, Austerweil M, Kritzman G, 2000. Non-chemical approach to soilborne pest management-organic amendments. Crop Prot 19: 847-853.

García-Ruíz A, Tello JC, Avilés-Guerrero A, Ordovás-Ascaso, J, 2009. Fusariosis del clavel (F. oxysporum f. sp. dianthi). Últimos avances en su control. Ediciones Agrotécnicas S. L., Madrid, 275 pp.

Hoitink HAJ, Boehm MJ, 1999. Biocontrol within the context of soil microbial communities: A substrate dependent phenomenon. Annu Rev Phytopathol 37: 427-446.

Israel S, Mawar R, Lodha S, 2011. Combining sub-lethal heating and on-farm wastes: effects on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cumini causing wilt of cumin. Phytoparasitica 39: 73-82.

Johnston SA, Springer JK, Lewis GD, 1979. Fusarium moniliforme as a cause of stem and crown rot of asparagus and its association with asparagus decline. Phytopathology 69: 778-780.

Katan J, 1981. Solar heating (solarization) of soil for control of soilborne pests. Annu Rev Phytopathol 19: 211-236.

Katan J, 2000. Physical and cultural methods for the management of soil-borne pathogens. Crop Prot 19: 725-731.

Katan J, Greenberger A, Laon H, Grinstein A, 1976. Solar heating by polyethtlene mulching for the control of diseases caused by soilborne pathogens. Phytopathology 66: 683-688.

Klein E, Katan J, Gamliel A, 2011. Soil suppressiveness to Fusarium disease following organic amendments and solarization. Plant Dis 95: 1116-1123.

Lazarovits G, 2001. Management of soil-borne plant pathogens with organic soil amendments: a disease control strategy salvaged from the past. Can J Plant Pathol 23: 1-7.

Martínez MA, Martínez MC, Bielza P, Tello J, Lacasa A, 2011. Effect of biofumigation with manure amendments and repeated biosolarization on Fusarium densities in pepper crops. J Indust Microbiol Biotechnol 38: 3-11.

Matsubara Y, Hasegawa N, Fukui H, 2002. Incidence of Fusarium root rot in asparagus seedlings infected with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus as affected by several soil amendments. J Japan Soc Hortic Sci 71: 370-374.

Melero-Vara JM, López-Herrera CJ, Prados-Ligero AM, Vela-Delgado MD, Navas-Becerra JA, Basallote-Ureba MJ, 2011. Effects of soil amendment with poultry manure on carnation Fusarium wilt in greenhouses in southwest Spain. Crop Prot 30: 970-976.

Molinero-Ruiz L, Rubio-Pérez E, González-Domínguez E, Basallote-Ureba MJ, 2011. Alternative hosts for Fusarium spp. causing crown and root rot of asparagus in Spain. J Phytopathol 159: 114-116.

Nava Juárez RA, 2013. Efecto de la adición de enmiendas orgánicas y cubiertas plásticas del sustrato sobre Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi razas uno y dos en clavel, asociadas con posibles fusaria antagonistas. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Córdoba, Spain. 289 pp.

Ngouajio M, Counts JW, 2012. Effect of soil amendment on soil microbial activity and asparagus yield under a replant situation. Acta Hortic 950: 65-71.

Noble R, Coventry E, 2005. Suppression of soil-borne plant diseases with composts: A review. Biocontrol Sci Technol 15: 3-20.

Reid TC, Hausebeck MK, Kizilkaya K, 2002. Use of fungicides and biological controls in the suppression of Fusarium crown and root rot of asparagus under greenhouse and growth chamber conditions. Plant Dis 86: 493-498.

Schreuder W, Lamprecht SC, Marasas WFO, Calitz FJ, 1995. Pathogenicity of three Fusarium species associated with asparagus decline in South Africa. Plant Dis 79: 177-181.

Seifert KA, Aoki T, Baayen R, Brayford D, Burgess LW, Chulze S, Gams W, Geiser D, de Gruyter J, Leslie JF et al., 2003. The name Fusarium moniliforme should no longer be used. Mycol Res 107: 643-644.

Shinmura A, 2004. Principle and effect of soil sterilization method by reducing redox potential of soil. PSJ Soilborne Disease Workshop Report 22: 2-12 [in Japanese with English summary].

Snyder WC, Schroth MN, Christou T, 1959. Effect of plant residues on root rot of beans. Phytopathology 49: 755-756.

Stapleton JJ, 2000. Soil solarization in various agricultural production systems. Crop Prot 19: 837-841.

Tello JC, González ML, Lacasa A, 1985. The "Fusariosis" (disease produced by Fusarium spp.) of asparagus in Spain. Proc. 6th Int Asparagus Symp; Lougheed EC & Tiessen H (eds.). University of Guelph, ON, Canada, pp: 126-135.

Tenuta M, Lazarovits G, 2002. Ammonia and nitrous acid from nitrogenous amendments kill the microsclerotia of Verticillium dahliae. Phytopathology 92: 255-264.

Tsao PH, Oster JJ, 1981. Relation of ammonia and nitrous acid to suppression of Phytophthora in soils amended with nitrogenous organic substances. Phytopathology 71: 53-59.

Wong JY, Jeffries P, 2006. Diversity of pathogenic Fusarium populations associated with asparagus roots in decline soils in Spain and the UK. Plant Pathol 55: 331-342.

DOI: 10.5424/sjar/2015134-7905