Bitter pit in apples: pre- and postharvest factors: A review

Tomislav Jemrić, Ivan Fruk, Mladen Fruk, Sanja Radman, Lovro Sinkovič, Goran Fruk

Abstract


Bitter pit is a physiological disorder that significantly reduces the quality of apples. Although it has been detected since the beginning of the last century, still there is little known about the mechanism of its occurrence. According to numerous studies, bitter pit is formed as a result of calcium deficiency in the fruit. Some authors cite the high concentration of gibberellins, later in the production season, most probably caused by excessive activity of the roots, as the chief causative factor. Beside Ca, there are several factors that can also contribute to its development, like imbalance among some mineral elements (N, P, K and Mg), cultivar, rootstock, the ratio of vegetative and generative growth, post-harvest treatments and the storage methods. There are some prediction models available that can estimate the risk of bitter pit in apples, but even those are not always reliable. The aim of this review was to encompass the pre and postharvest factors which cause bitter pit and point out the directions for solving this problem.


Keywords


Malus × domestica Borkh.; Ca absorption; CaCl2; gibberellins, 1-MCP, DPA, controlled atmosphere, physiological disorder

Full Text:

PDF HTML XML

References


Aichner M, Drahorad W, 2003. Sviluppo di un modello previsionale della butteratura amara del melo. Riv Frutic Ortofloric 65(12): 38-41.

Ait-Oubahou A, El-Otmani M, Charhabaili Y, Fethi J, Bendada M, 1995. Effect of harvesting date and postharvest calcium treatment on stored apple quality. Postharvest Physiology, Pathology and Technologies for Horticultural Commodities: Recent Advances. Agadir, Morocco, 16-21 January 1994, 1995, pp: 57-64.

Amarante CVT, Ernani PR, Chaves DV, 2005. Fruit infiltration with magnesium is a feasible way to predict bitter pit susceptibility in `Gala' apples grown in southern Brazil. Acta Hortic 682 (2): 1271-1274. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2005.682.169

Amarante CVT, Chaves DV, Ernani PR, 2006. Análise multivariada de atributos nutricionais associados ao" bitter pit" em maçãs' Gala'. Pesqui Agropecu Bras 41(5): 841-846. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-204X2006000500017

Amarante CVT, Steffens CA, Ernani PR, 2010. Preharvest identification of bitter pit risk in 'Gala' apples by fruit infiltration with magnesium and analysis of fruit contents of calcium and nitrogen. Rev Bras Frutic 32 (1): 27-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-29452010005000015

Amarante CVT, Ernani PR, Steffens CA, 2009. Prediction of bitter pit in 'Gala' apples by means of fruit infiltration with magnesium. Rev Bras Frutic 31 (4): 962-968. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-29452009000400008

Amarante CVT, Miqueloto A, Freitas STd, Steffens CA, Silveira JPG, Corrêa TR, 2013. Fruit sampling methods to quantify calcium and magnesium contents to predict bitter pit development in 'Fuji' apple: A multivariate approach. Sci Hortic 157 (0): 19-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2013.03.021

Bangerth F, 1970. The effect of immersing ripe apples into Ca solutions on the occurence of several physiological fruit disorders (Bitter pit, Cox's spot, Jonathan spot). Angew Bot 44(3/4): 206-207.

Basak A, 1999. The storage quality of apples after fruitlets thinning. Acta Hort 485: 47-53. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1999.485.5

Ben J, 1995a. Influence of rootstock on mineral content and storage of apple fruits. Acta Hort 383: 353-357. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1995.383.37

Ben J, 1995b. Mineral composition of "Jonagold" apples differing in size and in the presence of bitter pit. Acta Hort 383: 457-462. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1995.383.49

Ben J, 1998. Estimation of apple storage quality based on fruit analysis. Int Sem: Ecological Aspects of Nutrition and Alternatives for Herbicides in Horticulture. Warszawa, Poland, pp: 7-8.

Ben J, 1999. Effect of rootstocks on mineral element concentration in 'Gloster' apples. Int Sem Apple Rootstocks for Intensive Orchards, pp: 13-14.

Biškup S, Ćosić T, Pecina M, Miljković I, 2003a. Effect of calcium spray on calcium content in apple fruit. Pomol Croat 9 (1-4): 37-41.

Biškup S, Ćosić T, Pecina M, Miljković I, 2003b. Relations of nutrient in apple leaves and fruits grown on acid soil and their influence on bitter pit occurence. Pomol Croat 9 (1-4): 25-35.

Calvo G, 2005. Control of postharvest disorders in Granny Smith apples by 1-methylcyclopropene 1-MCP application. Rev Investig Agropec 34(1): 45-58.

Casero Mazo T, 1996. Calcium applications in apple trees. ITEA-Inf Tecn Econ Agrar Prod Veg 92 (2): 58-63.

Chapon JF, Bony P, 1997. Pommes: controle de l'echaudure et prevision du risqué. Arboriculture Fruitiere 506: 37-40.

Chen J, Zhou W, 2004. Effects of calcium on peroxidase, beta -1,3-glucan synthetase and beta -1,3-glucanase in apple (Malus pumila) fruits. Sci Agr Sin 3: 400-405.

Conway W, Sams C, Hickey K, 2002. Pre-and postharvest calcium treatment of apple fruit and its effect on quality. Acta Hortic Sinica 594: 413-419. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2002.594.53

Delian E, Petre V, Burzo I, Badulescu L, Hoza D, 2011. Total phenols and nutrients composition aspects of some apple cultivars and new studied breeding creations lines grown in Voineşti area–Romania. Rom Biotech Lett 16 (6): 6723.

Dierend W, Rieken S, 2007. Post-harvest treatments of apples with calcium chloride. Erwerbsobstbau 49 (2): 51-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10341-007-0035-y

Dilmaghani MR, Malakouti MJ, Neilsen GH, Fallahi E, 2005. Interactive effects of potassium and calcium on K/Ca ratio and its consequences on apple fruit quality in calcareous soils of Iran. J Plant Nutr 27 (7): 1149-1162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/PLN-120038541

Drahorad W, Aichner M, 2001. Development and evaluation of a bitter pit prognosis model in apple orchards in the South Tyrol. Acta Hort 564: 91-96. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2001.564.9

Drake SR, Williams MW, Raese JT, 1997. Interstem and its relationship to 'Fuji' apple quality. J Tree Fruit Prod 2(1): 99-106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J072v02n01_07

Dris R, Niskanen R, 2004. Leaf and fruit macronutrient composition during the growth period of apples. J Food Agric Environ 2 (3&4): 174-176.

Eijden JV, 1993. Delcorf as a replacement for James Grieve. Fruitteelt Den Haag 83(22): 13.

Engel A, Lenz F, 1998. Yield, fruit quality and storage life of apples as dependent on long-term nutrient and herbicide treatment. Int Sem Ecological Aspects of Nutrition and Alternatives for Herbicides in Horticulture, 10-15 June 1997, Warszawa, Poland, p. 17.

Ernani PR, Amarante CVT, Dias J, Bessegato AA, 2002. Preharvest calcium sprays improve fruit quality of "Gala" apples in Southern Brazil. Acta Hort 594: 481-486. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2002.594.62

Falkenberg B, Witt I, Zanor MI, Steinhauser D, Mueller-Roeber B, Hesse H, Hoefgen R, 2008. Transcription factors relevant to auxin signalling coordinate broad-spectrum metabolic shifts including sulphur metabolism. J Exp Bot 59(10): 2831-2846. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/ern144

Fallahi E, Conway WS, Hickey KD, Sams CE, 1997. The role of calcium and nitrogen in postharvest quality and disease resistance of apples. HortScience 32(5): 831-835.

Fallahi E, Fallahi B, Retamales JB, Valdés C, Tabatabaei SJ, 2006. Prediction of apple fruit quality using preharvest mineral nutrients. Acta Hort 721: 259-264. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2006.721.35

Ferguson I, Volz R, Woolf A, 1999. Preharvest factors affecting physiological disorders of fruit. Postharvest Biol Technol 15(3): 255-262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0925-5214(98)00089-1

Ferguson IB, Watkins CB, 1989. Bitter pit in apple fruit. Hort 11:289-355. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118060841.ch8

Ferguson IB, Watkins CB, 1992. Crop load affects mineral concentrations and incidence of bitter pit in 'Cox's Orange Pippin' apple fruit. J Amer Soc Hort Sci 117 (3): 373-376.

Frasnelli K, Casera C, 1996. Influence of harvest date on fruit quality and storability in the varieties Braeburn and Gala. In: Cost 94, The postharvest treatment of fruit and vegetables; Jager AD (ed), pp: 105-115. Lofthus, Norway.

Frasnelli K, Casera C, Mantinger H, 1995. Versuchsergebnisse und Erfahrungen in der Bekampfung der Schalenbraune bei Apfel. Erwerbsobstbau 37(2): 40-45.

Freitas ST, Amarante CVT, Dandekar AM, Mitcham EJ, 2013. Shading affects flesh calcium uptake and concentration, bitter pit incidence and other fruit traits in "Greensleeves" apple. Sci Hortic 161: 266-272. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2013.07.019

Freitas ST, Amarante CVT, Labavitch JM, Mitcham EJ, 2010. Cellular approach to understand bitter pit development in apple fruit. Postharvest Biol Technol 57(1): 6-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2010.02.006

Freitas ST, Amarante CVT, Mitcham EJ, 2015. Mechanisms regulating apple cultivar susceptibility to bitter pit. Sci Hortic 186: 54-60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2015.01.039

Freitas ST, Mitcham EJ, 2012. Factors involved in fruit calcium deficiency disorders. Hortic Rev 40: 107-146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118351871.ch3

Guerra M, Marcelo V, Valenciano JB, Casquero PA, 2011. Effect of organic treatments with calcium carbonate and bio-activator on quality of 'Reinette' apple cultivars. Sci Hortic 129 (2): 171-175. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2011.03.013

Guerra M, Valenciano JB, Marcelo V, Casquero PA, 2008. Effect of different storage techniques on ripeness attributes and storability of ´Golden delicious´ apple. Int Conf The Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering for a Sustainable World. Hersonissos, Crete, Greece, 23-25 June 2008.

Hampson C, MacDonald R, McKenzie D-L, Quamme H, Lane W, 2005. 'SPA440' (Nicola) apple. HortScience 40 (7): 2204-2206.

Hisaw L, 1991. Calcium sprays influence on apple fruit quality and storage - shelf life. Compact Fruit Tree 24: 75-79.

Jankovic M, Drobnjak S, 1994. The influence of cold room atmosphere composition on apple quality changes. Part 2. Changes in firmness, mass loss and physiological injuries. Review of Research Work at the Faculty of Agriculture, Belgrade, 39: 73-78.

Johnson D, Dover C, Samuelson T, Huxham I, Jarvis M, Shakespeare L, Seymour G, 2001. Nitrogen, cell walls and texture of stored Cox's orange pippin apples. Acta Hort 564: 105-112. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2001.564.11

Kadir SA, 2005. Fruit quality at harvest of "Jonathan" apple treated with foliarly-applied calcium chloride. J Plant Nutr 27 (11): 1991-2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/PLN-200030102

Khan FA, Rather AH, Qazi NA, Bhat MY, Darzi MS, Beigh MA, Imtiyaz A, 2006. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging on maintenance of quality in apple. J Hortic Sci 1: 135-137.

Kim-Kang H, Robinson RA, Wu J, 1998. Fate of [14C]diphenylamine in stored apples. J Agric Food Chem 46(2): 707-717. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf970697g

Kim MS, Ko KC, 2004a. Effects of forms and levels of nitrogen and levels of calcium on bitter pit incidence in ´Fuji´ apples (Malus domestica Borkh.). Korean J Hortic Sci 22 (2): 200-205.

Kim MS, Ko KC, 2004b. Relation of bitter pit development with mineral nutrients, cultivars, and rootstocks in apples (Malus domestica Borkh). Korean J Hortic Sci 22 (1): 43-49.

Krishkov E, 2007. Factors influencing the incidence of bitter pit on apple fruits and control measures. Proc Agric Sci XL (2): 22-26.

La Grange SA, Theron KI, Jacobs G, 1998. Influence of the number of calcium sprays on fruit mineral concentration and bitter pit development in 'Braeburn' apples Malus x domestica Borkh. J South Afr Soc Hortic Soc 8 (1): 5-9.

Lee H, Choi I, Kim W, 1997. Influence of chemicals treatment on occurrence and prevention of bitter pit during apple fruit maturing-stage. RDA J Crop Protect 39 (2): 25-33.

Liu H, Han Z, 1997. Apple fruit mineral nutrition. J Fruit Sci 14 (z1): 73-78.

Lötze E, 2005. Pre-harvest determination of bitter pit potential in apples. Doctoral thesis, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Lötze E, Joubert J, Theron KI, 2008. Evaluating pre-harvest foliar calcium applications to increase fruit calcium and reduce bitter pit in 'Golden Delicious' apples. Sci Hortic 116 (3): 299-304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2008.01.006

Lötze E, Theron KI, Joubert J, 2010. Assessment of pre-harvest physiological infiltration methods for predicting commercial bitter pit in 'Braeburn' and 'Golden Delicious'. Acta Hort 868: 347-352. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2010.868.46

Mahouachi J, Socorro A, Talon M, 2006. Responses of papaya seedlings (Carica papaya L.) to water stress and re-hydration: growth, photosynthesis and mineral nutrient imbalance. Plant Soil 281 (1-2): 137-146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11104-005-3935-3

Marcelle RD, 1989. Ethylene formation, lipoxygenase activity and calcium content in apple (cv. 'Jonagold'). Acta Hort 258: 61-68. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1989.258.5

Martsynkevich DI, Krivorot AM, 2007. Role of agrotechnical methans in forming the stability potential for the apple tree fruits diseases in storage. Proc Natl Acad Sci Belarus, Agr Sci Series 4: 57-63.

McAinsh MR, Pittman JK, 2009. Shaping the calcium signature. New Phytol 181(2): 275-294. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02682.x

Miqueloto A, Amarante CVT, Steffens CA, Santos Ad, Miqueloto T, Silveira JPG, 2011. Physiological, physicochemical and mineral attributes associated with the occurrence of bitter pit in apples. Pesqui Agropecu Bras 46 (7): 689-696. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-204X2011000700003

Miqueloto A, Amarante CVT, Steffens CA, Santos Ad, Mitcham E, 2014. Relationship between xylem functionality, calcium content and the incidence of bitter pit in apple fruit. Sci Hortic 165: 319-323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2013.11.029

Moon BW, Choi JS, Kim KH, 1999. Effect of calcium compounds extracted from oyster shell on the occurrence of physiological disorder, pathogenic decay and quality in apple fruit. J Korean Soc Hortic Sci 40: 41-44.

Moor U, Poldma P, Karp K, Asafova L, Pae A, 2005. Influence of preharvest calcium treatments on postharvest quality of some Estonian apple cultivars. Acta Hort 682: 1041-1048. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2005.682.136

Napier D, Combrink N, 2006. Aspects of calcium nutrition to limit plant physiological disorders. V Int Pineapple Symp 702: 107-116.

Neven LG, Drake SR, Ferguson HJ, 2000. Effects of the rate of heating on apple and pear fruit quality. J Food Qual 23 (3): 317-325. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4557.2000.tb00217.x

Pavičić N, 1993. Predicting the occurrence of physiological disorder bitter pit in fruits of Golden Delicious and Idared apples. Agronomski Glasnik 52: 419-425.

Pavičić N, Miljković I, 1991. Investigations of indexes of bitter pit, K/Ca ratio and calcium concentration in apples. Informatore Agrario 47 (44): 94-96.

Pavičić N, Jemrić T, Kurtanjek Ž, Ćosić T, Pavlović I, Blašković D, 2004. Relationship between water-soluble Ca and other elements and bitter pit occurrence in 'Idared' apples: a multivariate approach. Ann Appl Biol 145 (2): 193-196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.2004.tb00375.x

Perring MA, 1986. Incidence of bitter pit in relation to the calcium content of apples: Problems and paradoxes, a review. J Sci Food Agric 37(7): 591-606. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740370702

Perring MA, Pearson K, 1986. Incidence of bitter pit in relation to the calcium content of apples: Calcium distribution in the fruit. J Sci Food Agric 37 (8): 709-718. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740370802

Peryea F, Neilsen G, 2006. Effect of very high calcium sprays just before harvest on apple fruit firmness and calcium concentration. Acta Hort 721: 199-206. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2006.721.26

Peryea FJ, Neilsen GH, Faubion D, 2007. Start-timing for calcium chloride spray programs influences fruit calcium and bitter pit in 'Braeburn' and 'Honeycrisp' apples. J Plant Nutr 30 (8): 1213-1227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01904160701555077

Pesis E, Ebeler SE, de Freitas ST, Padda M, Mitcham EJ, 2010. Short anaerobiosis period prior to cold storage alleviates bitter pit and superficial scald in Granny Smith apples. J Sci Food Agric 90 (12): 2114-2123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4060

Porro D, Ceschini A, Pantezzi T, 2006. The importance of advisory service in predicting bitter pit using early-season fruit analysis. Acta Hort 721: 273-277. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2006.721.37

Prange R, Delong J, Nichols D, Harrison P, 2011. Effect of fruit maturity on the incidence of bitter pit, senescent breakdown, and other post-harvest disorders in 'Honeycrisp'™ apple. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 86 (3): 245-248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14620316.2011.11512756

Raese JT, 2000. Calcium can improve apple color and firmness. Good Fruit Grower 51 (15): 32-35.

Raese JT, Drake SR, 2000. Effect of calcium spray materials, rate, time of spray application, and rootstocks on fruit quality of 'red' and 'Golden Delicious' apples. J Plant Nutr 23 (10): 1435-1447. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01904160009382113

Raese JT, Drake SR, 2002. Calcium spray materials and fruit calcium concentrations influence apple quality. J Am Pomol Soc 56 (3): 136-143.

Recasens I, Benavides A, Puy J, Casero T, 2004. Pre-harvest calcium treatments in relation to the respiration rate and ethylene production of 'Golden Smoothee' apples. J Sci Food Agric 84 (8): 765-771. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.1719

Reed AN, 2002. Effects of smartfresh (1-MCP) and controlled atmosphere storage on eight apple varieties. Penn Fruit News 82 (2): 43-48.

Retamales JB, Valdes C, Dilley DR, Leon L, Lepe VP, 2000. Bitter pit prediction in apples through Mg infiltration. Acta Hort 512: 169-179. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2000.512.17

Robinson T, Lopez S, 2012. Crop load affects 'Honeycrisp' fruit quality more than nitrogen, potassium, or irrigation. Acta Hortic 940: 529-537. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2012.940.76

Saks Y, Sonego L, Ben-Arie R, 1990. Senescent breakdown of 'Jonathan' apples in relation to the water-soluble calcium content of the fruit pulp before and after storage. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 115 (4): 615-618.

Sanz M, Machín J, 1999. Applying floral analysis for the prognosis and diagnosis of bitter pit. ITEA-Inf Tecn Econ Agr Prod Veg 95 (2): 118-124.

Saure M, 1996. Reassessment of the role of calcium in development of bitter pit in apple. Funct Plant Biol, 23(3), 237-243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/pp9960237

Saure MC, 2005. Calcium translocation to fleshy fruit: its mechanism and endogenous control. Sci Hortic 105 (1): 65-89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2004.10.003

Schönherr J, 2001. Cuticular penetration of calcium salts: effects of humidity, anions, and adjuvants. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 164 (2): 225-231. 3.0.CO;2-N" target="_blank">http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1522-2624(200104)164:2<225::AID-JPLN225>3.0.CO;2-N

Sestari I, Neuwald DA, Giehl RFH, Weber A, Brackmann A, 2009a. Methods for bitter pit prediction in Fuji and Braeburn apples. Cienc Rural 39 (4): 1032-1038. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-84782009005000048

Sestari I, Neuwald DA, Weber A, Brackmann A, 2009b. Prediction of bitter pit in apples through Mg2+ infiltration and ethephon application on fruits. Cienc Rural 39 (7): 2203-2206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-84782009000700039

Sharma R, Pal R, Singh D, Singh J, Dhiman M, Rana M, 2012. Relationships between storage disorders and fruit calcium contents, lipoxygenase activity, and rates of ethylene evolution and respiration in'Royal Delicious' apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.). J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 87 (4): 367-373. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14620316.2012.11512878

Silveira JPG, Amarante CVTd, Steffens CA, Miqueloto A, Katsurayama JM, 2012. A inibição na síntese de giberelina reduz o crescimento vegetativo em macieiras e proporciona controle de "bitter pit" nos frutos. Rev Bras Frutic 34: 328-335. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-29452012000200004

Sió J, Boixadera J, Rosera J, 1999. Effect of orchard factors and mineral nutrition on bitter pit in 'Golden Delicious' apples. Acta Hort 485: 331-334. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1999.485.46

Skrzyński J, 2007. The effect of rootstocks on the retention of apple quality. Acta Hort 732: 155-158. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2007.732.18

Skrzyński J, Gąstoł M, 2007. The effect of rootstocks on the fruit characteristic attributes of 'Jonica' apples. Veg Crops Res Bull 66 (1): 171-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/v10032-007-0019-3

Struklec A, 1994. Can summer pruning increase the calcium concentration of apples and reduce the occurrence of physiological disorders? Erwerbsobstbau 36 (6): 158-160.

Tagliavini M, Marangoni B, 2002. Major nutritional issues in deciduous fruit orchards of Northern Italy. HortTechnol 12 (1): 26-31.

Takac J, 1994. Study of factors affecting apple quality and storability. Agrochem Bratislava 34: 11-12.

Tatarinov AN, 1992. Dwarfing clonal apple rootstock M26. Sadovodstvo i Vinogradarstvo 9-10: 12.

Telias A, Hoover E, Rosen C, Bedford D, Cook D, 2006. The effect of calcium sprays and fruit thinning on bitter pit incidence and calcium content in 'Honeycrisp' apple. J Plant Nutr 29 (11): 1941-1957. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01904160600927492

Tomala K, Soska A, 2004. Effect of calcium and/or phosphorus sprays with different commercial preparations on quality and storability of šampion apples. Hort Sci 31: 12-16.

Torres E, Alegre S, 2012. Predicting of bitter pit in 'Golden Smoothee' apples. Acta Hort 934: 861-864. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2012.934.114

Torres E, Recasens I, Peris JM, Alegre S, 2015. Induction of symptoms pre-harvest using the 'passive method': An easy way to predict bitter pit. Postharvest Biol Technol 101: 66-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2014.11.002

Tough HJ, Park DG, Crutchley KJ, Bartholomew FB, Craig G, 1998. Effect of crop load on mineral status, maturity and quality of 'Braeburn' Malus domestica Borkh. apple fruit. Acta Hort 464: 53-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1998.464.4

Val Falcón J, Aznar Antoñanzas Y, Monge Pacheco E, Blanco Braña Á, 2000. Nutritional study of an apple orchard as endemically affected by bitter-pit. Acta Hort 502: 493-502.

Val J, Fernandez V, Lopez P, Peiro JM, Blanco A, 2010. Low oxygen treatment prior to cold storage decreases the incidence of bitter pit in 'Golden Reinders' apples. J Sci Food Agric 90 (3): 536-540. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3837

Val J, Gracia M, Monge E, Blanco A, 2008. Visual detection of calcium by GBHA staining in bitter pit-affected apples. Food Sci Technol Int 14 (4): 315-319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1082013208097191

Vang-Petersen O, 1980. Calcium nutrition of apple trees: A review. Sci Hortic 12 (1): 1-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(80)90032-1

Volz R, Alspach P, Fletcher D, Ferguson I, 2006. Genetic variation in bitter pit and fruit calcium concentrations within a diverse apple germplasm collection. Euphytica 149 (1-2): 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10681-005-9000-8

Wang GH, Yu SC, Chen LP, Yu XF, Cong ML, 2005. Experiment of applying lime for correction of the soil acidification in apple orchards. China Fruits 4: 11-12.

Wang L, Jiang W, He Z, Fan H, 2001. Studies on the relationship of the development of bitter pit in apple fruits with the contents of calcium and magnesium and the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Acta Hort Sin 28 (3): 200-205.

Watkins CB, Nock JF, Weis SA, Jayanty S, Beaudry RM, 2004. Storage temperature, diphenylamine, and pre-storage delay effects on soft scald, soggy breakdown and bitter pit of 'Honeycrisp' apples. Postharvest Biol Technol 32 (2): 213-221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2003.11.003

Weibel F, Beyeler C, Hauert C, 2001. Agronomic strategies to prevent bitter-pit of apple. Riv Frutic Ortofloric 63 (1): 67-70.

Wińska-Krysiak M, Łata B, 2010. Influence of lipoxygenase activity and calcium and potassium contents on bitter pit occurrence in commercial apple cultivars. Folia Hortic 22 (1): 13-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/fhort-2013-0145

Wójcik P, Cieslinski G, Mika A, 1999. Apple yield and fruit quality as influenced by boron applications. J Plant Nutr 22 (9): 1365-1377. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01904169909365719

Wójcik P, Mika A, 1996. Effect of fertilization of apple trees with boron on the growth, yield and fruit quality. Zeszyty Problemowe Postepow Nauk Rolniczych 434: 419-424.

Wójcik P, Mika A, 1998. Influence of removal date of spur leaves on yield of apple trees and fruit quality. Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych Seria A, Produkcja Roslinna 113 (1/2): 65-76.

Wójcik P, Mika A, Cieśliński G, 1997. Effect of boron fertilization of apple trees (Malus domestica Borth.) on yield and fruit quality. Acta Agrobot 50 (1-2): 111-124. http://dx.doi.org/10.5586/aa.1997.014

Wójcik P, Rutkowski K, Treder W, 2001. Quality and storability of 'Gala' apples as affected by crop load. Folia Hortic 13 (2): 89-96.

Wójcik P, Szwonek E, 2002. The efficiency of different foliar-applied calcium materials in improving apple quality. Acta Hort 594: 563-567. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2002.594.75

Wooldridge J, Joubert M, 1997. Effect of Calcimax on fruit quality parameters in apples and plums. Deciduous Fruit Grower 47 (1): 30-34.

Wooldridge J, Joubert M, Kotze W, 1997. Control of bitter pit in apple and internal breakdown in plum using an organically complexed calcium carrier (Calcimax). Acta Hort 448: 351-357. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1997.448.62

Zanella A, Cecchinel M, Rossi O, Cazzanelli P, Panarese A, 2005. Effects of the postharvest treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene 1 MCP on the preservation of South-Tyrolean Italy apple quality during storage. Laimburg J 2 (1/2): 6-26.

Zheng WW, You CX, Du ZJ, Zhai H, 2006. Dynamic changes in the calcium content of several apple cultivars during the growing season. Agric Sci China 5 (12): 933-937. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1671-2927(07)60007-8

Zude M, Alexander A, Lüdders P, 1997. Influence of summer boron sprays on storability in apple cultivar 'Elstar'. Erwerbsobstbau 39 (3): 62-64.




DOI: 10.5424/sjar/2016144-8491