Reproductive ethogram and mate selection in captive wild Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis)

Ignacio Carazo, Olvido Chereguini, Ignacio Martín, Felicity Huntingford, Neil Duncan

Abstract


Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) have a high potential for aquaculture that is hampered by reproductive behavioural problems. These problems result in limited breeder participation in spawning. The present study provided an ethogram and described mate selection and spawning of captive wild Senegalese sole. Two tanks of breeders were studied that had 29 and 25 breeders (mean weight = 1.6 ± 0.1 kg). The behaviour was studied during 20 periods of 24 hours: 10 periods where spawning events were recorded and 10 control periods without spawning events. Periods where spawning occurred had three times more locomotor activity than periods without spawning. Two distinct behaviours, termed the “following” behaviour and the “coupled swim”, were only observed during periods with spawning. The courtship sequence (n=12) began with males predominantly involved in “following” behaviours, whilst females remained mainly stationary on the bottom of the tank. Males rested on the females and encouraged the females to begin swimming. When the female began to swim the male swam under the female and the pair made a “coupled swim” to the surface to release gametes. Gamete release was strictly in pairs of one male with one female. Failed “coupled swims” without gamete release were 5.6 times more frequent than successful “coupled swims”. Mate selection was evident as the sole engaged in: paired spawning, males displayed to females, males encouraged females to spawn and females accepted or rejected the male’s advances. The mate selection process provided the opportunity for fish to dominate the spawning and also demonstrated how fish were excluded from spawning.


Keywords


behaviour; flatfish; courtship; spawning; paired spawning; following

Full Text:

PDF HTML XML

References


Altman J, 1974. Observational study of behaviour: Sampling methods. Behaviour 49: 227-267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853974X00534

Anguis V, Cañavate JP, 2005. Spawning of captive Senegal sole (Solea senegalensis) under a naturally fluctuating temperature regime. Aquaculture 243: 133-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2004.09.026

Balon EK, 1975. Reproductive guilds of fishes: A proposal and definition. J Fish Res Board Can 32: 821-864. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/f75-110

Bayarri MJ, Muñoz-Cueto JA, López-Olmeda JF, Vera LM, Rol de Lama MA, Madrid JA, Sánchez-Vázquez FJ, 2004. Daily locomotor activity and melatonin rhythms in Senegal Sole (Solea senegalensis). Physiol Behav 81: 577-583. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2004.02.001

Baynes SM, Howell BR, Beard TW, Hallam JD, 1994. A description of spawning behaviour of captive Dover sole, Solea solea (L.). Neth J Sea Res 32: 271-275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0077-7579(94)90004-3

Berglund A, 1997. Mating systems and sex allocation. In: Behavioural Ecology of Teleost Fishes; Godin JGJ, ed. pp: 237-265. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, UK.

Breder CM, 1922. Description of the spawning habits of Pseudopleuronectes americanus in captivity. Copeia 102: 3-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1436697

Bromage N, Porter M, Randall C, 2001. The environmental regulation of maturation in farmed finfish with special reference to the role of photoperiod and melatonin. Aquaculture 197: 63-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(01)00583-X

Carazo I, 2012. Reproductive behaviour and physiology of Senegalese sole, (Solea senegalensis) broodstock in captivity. PhD Thesis, University of Barcelona, Spain [13/03/2015]. http://diposit.ub.edu/dspace/handle/2445/41756

Carazo I, Norambuena F, Oliveira C, Sanchez-Vazquez FJ, Duncan NJ, 2013. The effect of night illumination, red and infrared light, on locomotor activity, behaviour and melatonin of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) broodstock. Physiol Behav 118: 201-207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2013.05.032

Carvalho N, Alfonso P, Serrao Santos R, 2003. The haremic mating system and mate choice in the wide-eyed flounder, Bothus podas. Environ Biol Fish 66: 249-258. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1023957825568

Domeier ML, Colin PL, 1997. Tropical reef fish spawning aggregations: defined and reviewed. Bull Marine Sci 60: 698-726.

Duncan NJ, Thrush MA, Elliott JAK, Bromage NR, 2002. Seawater growth and maturation of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) transferred to sea at different times during the year. Aquaculture 213: 293-309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(02)00303-4

Edward DA, 2015. The description of mate choice. Behav Ecol 26: 301-310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/beheco/aru142

FAO, 2011-2016. Fisheries and aquaculture software. FishStatJ - software for fishery statistical time series. FAO Fish Aquacult Dept, Rome. [27 June 2016]. http://www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/software/fishstatj/en#downlApp.

Forster GR, 1953. The spawning behavior of plaice. J Marine Biol Assoc UK 32: 319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315400014569

Gibson RN, 2005. The behaviour of flatfishes. In: Flatfishes biology and exploitation. Fish and aquatic resources series 9, 1st ed, Gibson RN, ed. pp: 213-239. Blackwell Sci. Ltd., Oxford, UK. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470995259.ch10

Howell B, Pricket R, Canavate P, Mananos E, Dinis MT, Conceicao L, Valente LMP, 2011. Sole farming: there or thereabouts! A report of the 5th Workshop on the Cultivation of Soles. Aquacult Eur 36: 42-45.

Ibarra-Zatarain Z, Duncan N, 2015. Mating behaviour and gamete release in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758) held in captivity. Span J Agric Res 13 (1): e04001. http://dx.doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2015131-6750

Konstantinou H, Shen DC, 1995. The social and reproductive behavior of the eyed flounder, Bothus ocellatus, with notes on the spawning of Bothus lunatus and Bothus ellipticus. Environ Biol Fish 44: 311-324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00008245

Kruuk H, 1963. Diurnal periodicity in the activity of the common sole, solea vulgaris quensel. Neth J Sea Res 2: 1-28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0077-7579(63)90002-4

Manabe H, Ide M, Shinomiya A, 2000. Mating system of the lefteye flounder, Engyprosopon grandisquama. Ichthyol Res 47: 69-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02674315

Manabe H, Shinomiya A, 2001. Two spawning seasons and mating system of the bastard halibut, Tarphops oligolepis. Ichthyol Res 48: 421-424. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10228-001-8167-9

Martin I, Rasines I, Gomez M, Rodrıguez C, Martınez P, Chereguini O, 2014. Evolution of egg production and parental contribution in Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis, during four consecutive spawning seasons. Aquaculture 424-425: 45-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2013.12.042

Morais S, Aragao C, Cabrita E, Conceicao LEC, Constenla M, Costas B, Dias J, Duncan N, Engrola S, Estevez A, Gisbert E, Mananos E, Valente VMP, Yufera M, Dinis MT, 2014. New developments and biological insights into the farming of Solea senegalensis reinforcing its aquaculture potential. Reviews in Aquaculture 6: 1-37. DOI: 10.1111/raq.12091

Moyer JT, Yogo Y, Zaiser MJ, Tsukahara H, 1985. Spawning behavior and socialorganization of the flounder Crossorhombus kobensis (Bothidae) at Miyake-jima. Jap J Ichthyol 32: 363-367. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02905443

Oliveira C, Dinis MT, Soares F, Cabrita E, Pousão-Ferreira P, Sanchez-Vazquez FJ, 2009. Lunar and daily spawning rhythms of Senegal sole Solea senegalensis. J Fish Biol 75: 61-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2009.02263.x

Pankhurst NW, Fitzgibbon QP, 2006. Characteristics of spawning behaviour in cultured greenback flounder Rhombosolea tapirina. Aquaculture 253: 279-289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.01.014

Porta J, Porta JM, Martınez-Rodriguez G, Alvarez MC, 2006a. Development of a microsatellite multiplex PCR for Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) and its application to broodstock management. Aquaculture 256: 159-166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.02.022

Porta J, Porta JM, Martınez-Rodriguez G, Alvarez MC, 2006b. Genetic structure and genetic relatedness of a hatchery stock of Senegal sole (Solea senegalensis) inferred by microsatellites. Aquaculture 251: 46-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.05.019

Reynolds JD, 1996. Animal breeding systems. Trends Ecol Evol 11: 68-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0169-5347(96)81045-7

Salas-Leiton E, Anguis V, Rodríguez-Rúa A, Canavate JP, 2010. Stocking homogeneous size groups does not improve growth performance of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup 1858) juveniles: Individual growth related to fish size. Aquacult Eng 43: 108-113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaeng.2010.08.001

Stoner AW, Bejda AJ, Manderson JP, Phelan BA, Stehlik LL, Pessutti JP, 1999. Behavior of winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, during the reproductive season: laboratory and field observations on spawning, feeding, and locomotion. Fish Bull 97: 999-1016.

Velez Z, Hubbard PC, Barata EN, Canário AVM, 2007. Differential detection of conspecific-derived odorants by the two olfactory epithelia of the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis). Gen Comp Endocrinol 153: 418-425. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2007.02.016




DOI: 10.5424/sjar/2016144-9108