Relationship between birth order, birth weight, colostrum intake, acquisition of passive immunity and pre-weaning mortality of piglets

Jean Le Dividich, Rui Charneca, Françoise Thomas

Abstract


This study investigates the relation between birth order (BO), birth weight (BW0), colostrum intake (CI), level of passive immunity and pre-weaning mortality of piglets. The animals used were 551 cross-bred piglets [Piétrain × (Large-White × Landrace)] born from 40 sows. Colostrum immunoglobulins G (IgG) determinations were made from 17 sows. Colostrum samples were obtained at birth of the first piglet then at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 h later, and on the first-two and the last-two piglets born. Serum IgG determinations from 68 piglets were made at 2d of age and at weaning. Individual CI was estimated from body weight gain. Relative birth order (RBO) and BW0 within-litter were weakly (R2<0.05) but positively correlated (p<0.01). Colostrum intake of piglets was independent from RBO (p>0.10) but increased by 26 ± 1.6 g per 100 g increase in BW0 (p<0.001). Serum IgG concentrations of the last two born piglets were 29.5% lower (p<0.01) than the first two born at 2 d of age, and 25% (p<0.05) at weaning. They were also lower at weaning than at 2 d of age (p<0.001). Serum IgG concentrations of piglets at weaning and at 2 d of age were positively correlated (R2=0.50, p<0.001). Within-litter, CI explained 11% (p<0.01) of the variation observed in piglets’ IgG at 2d of age. Mortality of piglets was irrespective of RBO (p>0.10). It was concluded that despite last-born piglets obtained less passive immunity than first-born, they were not at higher risk of dying before weaning. Major causes of mortality were low birth weight and insufficient colostrum (energy) intake.


Keywords


neonatal pig; colostrum consumption; immunoglobulin G; survival

Full Text:

PDF HTML XML

References


Beaulieu AD, Aalhus JL, Williams NH, Patience JF, 2010. Impact of piglet birth weight, birth order, and litter size on subsequent growth performance, carcass quality, muscle composition, and eating quality of pork. J Anim Sci 88: 2767-2778. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2009-2222

Berthon D, 1994. Thermogénèse néonatale chez le porcelet. Doctoral thesis. Université Claude Bernard, Lyon, 122 pp.

Bland IM, Rooke JA, Bland VC, Sinclair AG, Edwards SA, 2003. Appearance of immunoglobulin G in the plasma of piglets following colostrum intake, with or without a delay in sucking. Anim Sci 77: 277-286.

Blecha F, Kelley KW, 1981. Effects of cold stress and weaning stressors on the antibody-mediated immune response of pigs. J Anim Sci 53: 439-447. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1981.532439x

Bouquet A, Delaunay I, Merour I, Bellec TH, Ligonesche B, Sourdioux M, Bidanel JP, Canario L, 2014. Consequences of a selection for within-litter homogeneity of piglets birth weights on sow productivity in the French Large White and Landrace population. Journées Recherche Porcine 46: 19-23.

Bourne FJ, 1969. Studies on colostral and milk whey proteins in the sow. The transition of mammary secretion from colostrum to milk with natural suckling. Anim Prod 11: 337-344. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100026970

Cabrera RA, Lin X, Campbell JM, Moeser AJ, Odle J, 2012. Influence of birth order, birth weight, colostrum and serum immunoglobulin G on neonatal piglet survival. J Anim Sci Biotech 3: 42-52. https://doi.org/10.1186/2049-1891-3-42

Canario L, 2006. Aspects génétiques de la mortalité des porcelets à la naissance et en allaitement précoce : relation avec les aptitudes maternelles et la vitalité des porcelets. Doctoral Thesis. Institut National Agronomique Paris-Grignon, 321 pp.

Castrén H, Algers B, Salmoniemi H, 1991. Weight gain pattern in piglets during the first 24h after farrowing. Livest Prod Sci 28: 321-330. https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-6226(91)90013-G

Charneca R, Freitas A, Nunes J, Le Dividich J, 2013a. Relationship between birth order and birth weight of the pig. Proc 64th Annual Meeting of the EAAP, p 394.

Charneca R, Lima F, Freitas A, Tirapicos Nunes J, Le Dividich J, 2013b. Effects of uniformity of birth weight on colostrum intake and mortality of piglets. Journées Recherche Porcine 45: 81-82.

Charneca, R. Vila-Viçosa, MJ, Infante P, Nunes J, Le Dividich J, 2015. Colostrum production of Alentejano and Large-White × Landrace sows: consumption, passive immunity and mortality of piglets. Span J Agric Res 8: 317-325. https://doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2010082-1192

Coalson JA, Lecce JG, 1973. Influence of nursing intervals on changes in serum protein (immunoglobulins) in neonatal pigs. J Nutr 36: 381-385. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1973.362381x

Curtis SE, 1970. Environmental-Thermoregulatory interactions and neonatal piglet survival. J Anim Sci 31: 576-587. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1970.313576x

Damgaard LH, Rydhmer L, Lovendahl G, Grandispon K, 2003. Genetic parameters for within-litter variation in piglet birth weight and change in within-litter variation during suckling. J Anim Sci 81: 604-610. https://doi.org/10.2527/2003.813604x

de Passillé, AMB, Rushen J. Pelletier G, 1988. Sucking behaviour and serum immunoglobulin levels in neonatal piglets. Anim Prod 47: 447-456. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100003597

de Passillé AMB, Rushen J, 1989. Using early suckling behavior and weight gain to identify piglets at risk. Can J Anim Sci 69: 535-544. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjas89-066

De Vos M, Che L, Huygelen V, Willemen S, Michiels J, Van Cruchten S, Van Ginneken C, 2014. Nutritional interventions to prevent and rear low-birthweight piglets. J Anim Physiol An N 98: 609-619.

Devillers N, Farmer C, Mounier A-M, Le Dividch J, Prunier A, 2004a. Hormones, IgG and lactose changes around parturition in plasma, and colostrum or saliva of multiparous sows. Reprod Nutr Dev 44: 381-396. https://doi.org/10.1051/rnd:2004043

Devillers N, van Milgen Y, Prunier A, Le Dividich J, 2004b. Estimation of colostrum intake in the neonatal pig. Anim Sci 78: 305-313.

Devillers N, Farmer C, Le Dividich J, Prunier A, 2007.Variability of colostrum yield and colostrum intake in pigs. Animal 1: 1033-1041. https://doi.org/10.1017/S175173110700016X

Devillers N, Le Dividich J, Prunier A, 2011. Influence of colostrum intake on piglet survival and immunity. Animal 5: 1605-1612. https://doi.org/10.1017/S175173111100067X

EU, 2010. European Parliament and Council Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes. 22 September. [LEX-FAOC098296].

English PR, Morrison V, 1984. Causes and prevention of piglet mortality. Pig News Info 5: 369-375.

Ferrari CV, Sbardella PE, Bernardi ML, Coutinho ML, Vaz Jr. IS, Wentz I, Bortolozzo FP, 2014. Effect of birth weight and colostrum intake on mortality and performance of piglets after cross-foresting in sows of different parities. Prev Vet Med 114: 259-266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2014.02.013

Fraser D, Rushen J, 1992. Colostrum intake by the newborn piglets. Can J Anim Sci 72: 1-13. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjas92-001

Friend DW, Cunningham AM, 1966. Piglet birth weights and the order of farrowing. Can J Comp Med Vet Sci 30: 179-182.

Gardner IA, Hird DW, Franti CE, 1989. Neonatal survival in swine: effects of low birth weight and clinical disease. Am J Vet Res 50: 792-797.

Hartsock TG, Graves HB, 1976. Neonatal behavior and nutritional-related mortality in domestic swine. J Anim Sci 42: 235-241. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1976.421235x

Hendrix WF, Kelley KK, Gaskins CT, Hinrichs DJ, 1978. Porcine neonatal survival and serum gamma globulins. J Anim Sci 47: 1281-1286. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1978.4761281x

Herpin P, Le Dividich J, Hulin JC, Fillaut M, de Marco F, Bertin R, 1996. Effects of the level of asphyxia during delivery on viability at birth and early postnatal vitality of newborn pigs. J Anim Sci 4: 2067-2075. https://doi.org/10.2527/1996.7492067x

Herpin P, Damon M, Le Dividich J, 2002. Development of thermoregulation and neonatal survival in pigs. Livest Prod Sci 78: 25-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(02)00183-5

Holyoake PK, Dial GD, Trigg T, King VL, 1995. Reducing pig mortality trough supervision during perinatal period. J Anim Sci 73: 3543-3551. https://doi.org/10.2527/1995.73123543x

IFIP, 2011. Porc performances 2011. French Institute for Pig and Pork Industry, 32 pp.

Kielland C, Rootwelt V, Reksen O, Framstad T, 2015. The association between immunoglobulin G in sow colostrum and piglet plasma. J Anim Sci 93: 4453-4462. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2014-8713

Klobasa F, Werhahn E, Butler JE, 1981. Regulation of humoral immunity in the piglet by immunoglobulins of maternal origin. Res Vet Sci 31: 195-206.

Klobasa F, Werhahn E, Butler JE, 1987. Composition of sow milk during lactation. J Anim Sci 64: 1458-1466. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1987.6451458x

Klobasa F, Schröder C, Stroot C, Henning M, 2004. Passive immunization in neonatal piglets in natural rearing- effects of birth order, birth weight, litter size and parity. Berl Münch Tierärztl Wsch 117: 19-23.

Lay DC, Matteri, RI, Caroll JA, Frangman TJ, Safranski TJ, 2002. Preweaning survival in swine. J Anim Sci 80 (E. Suppl. 1): E74-E86.

Le Cozler Y, Guyomard C, Pichodo X, Quiniou N. Pellois H, 2002. Factors associated with stillborn and mummified piglets in high-prolific sows. Anim Res 51: 261-268. https://doi.org/10.1051/animres:2002017

Le Dividich J, Herpin P, Paul E, Strullu F, 1997. Effect of fat content of colostrum on voluntary colostrum intake and fat utilization in the newborn pig. J Anim Sci 75: 707-712. https://doi.org/10.2527/1997.753707x

Le Dividich J, Rooke J, Herpin P, 2005. Nutritional and immunological importance of colostrum for the new-born pig. J Agric Sci (Camb) 143: 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0021859605005642

Loisel F, Farmer C, Ramakers P, Quesnel H, 2013. Effects of high fiber intake during pregnancy on sow physiology, colostrum production, and piglet performance. J Anim Sci 91: 5269-5279. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2013-6526

Markowska-Daniel I, Pomoska-Mol M, Pejsak Z, 2010. Dynamic changes of immunoglobulin concentrations in pig colostrum and serum around parturition. Pol J Ve Sci 13: 21-27.

Mellor DJ, Cockburn FA, 1986. Comparison of energy metabolism in the newborn infant, piglet and lamb. Q J Exp Physiol 71: 361-371. https://doi.org/10.1113/expphysiol.1986.sp002995

Motsi P, Sakuhuni C, Halimani TE, Bhebhe E, Ndiweni PNB, Chimonyo M, 2006. Influence of parity, birth order, litter size and birth weight on duration of farrowing and birth intervals in commercial exotic sows in Zimbabwe. Anim Sci 82: 569-574. https://doi.org/10.1079/ASC200664

Nguyen K, Cassar G, Friendship RM, Dewey C, Farzan A, Kirkwood RN, Hodgins D, 2013. An investigation of the impacts of induced parturition, birth weight, birth order, litter size, and sow parity on piglet serum concentrations of immunoglobulin G. J Swine Health Prod 21: 139-143.

Panzardi A, Bernardi ML, Mellagi AP, Bierhals T, Bortolozzo FP, Wentz I, 2013. Newborn piglet traits associated with survival and growth performance until weaning. Prev Vet Med 110: 206-213. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2012.11.016

Pedersen LJ, Berg P, Jorgensen G, Andersen IL, 2011. Neonatal piglets traits of importance for survival in crates and outdoor pens. J Anim Sci 89: 1207-1218. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2010-3248

Quesnel H, 2011. Colostrum production by sows: variability of colostrum yield and immunoglobulin G concentrations. Animal 5: 1546-1553. https://doi.org/10.1017/S175173111100070X

Quesnel H, Farmer C, Devillers N, 2012. Colostrum intake: influence on piglet performance and factors of variation. Livest Sci 146: 105-114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2012.03.010

Ramackers PJL, Huerta I, van Hees HMJ, 2012. Effect of birth weight and weight gain in the first 24 h on preweaning piglet survival. J Anim Sci 90 (suppl 2): 88 (Abstr).

Randall GCB, 1972. Observations on parturition in the sow. II. Factors influencing stillbirths and perinatal mortality. Vet Rec 90: 183-186. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.90.7.183

Rooke JA, Carranca C, Bland IM, Sinclair AG, Ewen M, Bland VC, Edward SA, 2003. Relationship between passive absorption of immunoglobulin G by the piglet and plasma concentration of immunoglobulin G at weaning. Livest Prod Sci 81: 223-234. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(02)00260-9

Rootwelt V, Reksen O, Farstad W, Framstad T, 2012. Blood variables and body weight gain on the first day of life in crossbred pigs and importance for survival. J Anim Sci 90: 1134-1141. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2011-4435

Theil P, Lauridsen C, Quesnel H, 2014. Neonatal piglet survival: impact of sow nutrition around parturition on fetal glycogen deposition and production and composition of colostrum and transient milk. Animal 8: 1021-1030. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731114000950

Tuchscherer M, Puppe B, Tuchscherer A, Tieman U, 2000. Early identification of neonates at risk: traits of newborn piglets with respect to survival. Theriogenology 54: 371-388. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0093-691X(00)00355-1

Tyler JW, Cullor JS, Thurmond MC, Douglas VL, Parker KM, 1990. Immunological factors related to survival and performance in neonatal swine. Am J Vet Res 51:1400-1406.

Werhahn E, Klobasa F, Butler JE, 1981. Investigations on some factors which influence the absorption of IgG by the neonatal piglet. Vet Immunol Immunopatho l2: 35-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-2427(81)90037-4




DOI: 10.5424/sjar/2017152-9921