The use of polyethylene glycol to reduce the anti-nutritional effects of tannins in Cistus ladanifer L.
Aim of study: To evaluate the impact of Cistus ladanifer L. (rockrose) tannins on ruminal degradability and fermentation characteristics and the use of polyethylene glycol (PEG), as feed additive, to mitigate the anti-nutritional effects of rockrose tannins.
Material and methods: Aerial parts of rockrose plants were harvested in March, freeze dried and divided in 4 subsamples which were treated with 0, 25, 50 and 75 g of PEG/kg of dry matter (DM). The mixtures were analysed for chemical composition including total phenolics, total tannins and condensed tannins. In situ rumen organic matter (OM) and N rumen degradability was evaluated using three rumen-cannulated rams and ruminal fermentation pattern (volatile fatty acids (VFA), gas production) was evaluated in vitro using a Rumen Simulation Technique (RUSITEC) apparatus.
Main results: In situ experiment indicated that the effective degradability of the OM and N increased linearly (p<0.05) with PEG inclusion due to an increase of the degradation rate (p<0.05). RUSITEC data indicated that substrate disappearance and gas and VFA production increased linearly (p<0.05) with PEG inclusion.Research highlights: Inclusion of PEG to C. ladanifer feed was effective to prevent the anti-nutritive effects of tannins. Thus, the use of PEG as feed additive can promote a better utilization of this shrub by ruminants.
AFRC, 1993. Energy and protein requirements of ruminants. Agricultural and Food Research Council, CAB Int, Wallingford, UK. 159 pp.
Barry TN, Manley TR, 1986. Interrelationships between the concentrations of total condensed tannins, free condensed tannins and lignin in Lotus spp. and their possible consequences in ruminant nutrition. J Sci Food Agric 37: 248-254. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740370309
Broadhurst RB, Jones WT, 1978. Analysis of condensed tannins using acidified vanillin. J Sci Food Agric 29: 788-794. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740290908
Bruno-Soares AM, 2008. O controlo da vegetação herbácea e arbustiva pelos pequenos ruminantes nos ecossistemas multi-funcionais em Portugal. In: A silvopastorícia na prevenção dos fogos rurais; Moreira MB, Coelho IS (eds). pp: 49-60. ISA Press, Portugal.
Castro-Montoya JM, Makkar HPS, Becker K, 2011. Chemical composition of rumen microbial fraction and fermentation parameters as affected by tannins and saponins using an in vitro rumen fermentation system. Can J Anim Sci 91: 433-448. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjas2010-028
Cerpa-Calderon FK, Kennedy JA, 2008. Berry integrity and extraction of skin and seed proanthocyanidins during red wine fermentation. J Agric Food Chem 56: 9006-9014. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf801384v
Clegg KM, 1956. The aplication of the antrona reagent to the estimation of starch in cereals. J Sci Food Agric 7: 40-44. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740070108
Czerkawski JW, Breckenridge G, 1977. Design and development of a long-term rumen stimulation technique (Rusitec). Br J Nutr 38: 371-384. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19770102
Frutos P, Hervás G, Giráldez FJ, Mantecón AR, 2004. Review. Tannins and ruminant nutrition. Span J Agric Res 2: 191-202. https://doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2004022-73
Goering HK, Van Soest PJ, 1970. Forage fiber analysis (apparatus, reagents, procedures and some applications). Agric Handbook nº 379. ARS-USDA. Washington, DC, USA, 20 pp.
Guerreiro O, Dentinho MTP, Moreira OC, Guerra AR, Ramos PAB, Bessa RJB, Duarte MF, Jerónimo E, 2016. Potential of Cistus ladanifer L. (rockrose) in small ruminant diets - Effect of season and plant age on chemical composition, in vitro digestibility and antioxidant activity. Grass Forage Sci 71: 437-447. https://doi.org/10.1111/gfs.12188
Hagerman A, 1987. Radial diffusion method for determining tannin in plant extract. J Chem Ecology 13: 437-449. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01880091
Hanlin RL, Hrmova MH, Harbertson JF, Downey MO, 2010. Review: Condensed tannin and grape cell wall interactions and their impact on tannin extractability into wine. Aust J Grape Wine Res 16: 173-188. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-0238.2009.00068.x
ISO 5983, 1997. Animal feeding stuffs - Determination of nitrogen content and calculation of crude protein content- Kjeldhal method. Int. Org. Stand. Geneva, Switzerland.
ISO 6491, 1998. Animal feeding stuffs - Determination of phosphorus content. Spectrometric method. Int. Org. Stand. Geneva, Switzerland.
ISO 6496, 1999. Animal feeding stuffs - Determination of moisture and other volatile matter content. Int. Org. Stand. Geneva, Switzerland.
ISO 6869, 2000. Animal feeding stuffs - Determination of the contents of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium and zinc. Method using atomic absorption spectrometry. Int. Org. Stand. Geneva, Switzerland.
ISO 5984, 2002. Animal feeding stuffs - Determination of crude ash. Int. Org. Stand. Geneva, Switzerland.
Julkunen-Tiitto R, 1985. Phenolic constituents in the leaves of northern willows: Methods for the analysis of certain phenolics. J Agric Food Chem 33: 213-217. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00062a013
Khazaal K, Markantonatos X, Nastis A, Orskov ER, 1993. Changes with maturity in fiber composition and levels of extractable polyphenols in Greek browse: Effects on in vitro gas-production and in sacco dry matter degradation. J Sci Food Agric 63: 237-244. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740630210
Le Bourvellec C, Renarda CMGC, 2012. Interactions between polyphenols and macromolecules: Quantification methods and mechanisms. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 52: 213-248. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2010.499808
Makkar HPS, Singh B, Dawra RK, 1988. Effect of tannin-rich leaves of oak (Quercus incana) on various microbial enzyme-activities of the bovine rumen. Brit J Nutr 60: 287-296. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19880100
Makkar HPS, Becker K, Abel HJ, Szegletti C, 1995. Degradation of condensed tannins by rumen microbes exposed to quebracho tannins (QT) in rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC) and effects of QT on fermentation processes in the RUSITEC. J Sci Food Agric 69: 495-500. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740690414
McAllister TA, Bae HD, Jones GA, Cheng KJ, 1994. Microbial attachment and feed digestion in the rumen. J Anim Sci 72: 3004-3018. https://doi.org/10.2527/1994.72113004x
McDougall EI, 1948. Studies on ruminant saliva. 1. The composition and output of sheep's saliva. Biochem J 43: 99-109. https://doi.org/10.1042/bj0430099
McSweeney CS, Palmer B, Bunch R, Krause DO, 2001. Effect of the tropical forage calliandra on microbial protein synthesis and ecology in the rumen. J Appl Microbiol 90: 78-88. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.2001.01220.x
Meireles C, Gonçalves P, Rego F, Silveira S, 2005. Estudo da regeneração natural das espécies arbóreas autoóctones na Reserva Natural da Serra da Malcata. Silva Lusitana 13: 217-231.
Mendes P, Meireles C, Vila-Viçosa C, Musarella C, Pinto-Gomes C, 2015. Best management practices to face degraded territories occupied by Cistus ladanifer shrublands—Portugal case study. Plant Biosyst 149: 494-502. https://doi.org/10.1080/11263504.2015.1040483
Min BR, Hart SP, 2003. Tannins for suppression of internal parasites. J Anim Sci 81: E102-E109.
Motulsky HJ, Christopoulos A, 2003. Fitting models to biological data using linear and nonlinear regression. GraphPad Software Inc., San Diego, CA, USA, 351 pp.
Ndagurwa HGT, Dube JS, 2013. Evaluation of potential and effective rumen digestion of mistletoe species and woody species browsed by goats in a semi-arid savanna, southwest Zimbabwe. Anim Feed Sci Technol 186: 106-111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2013.09.003
NRC, 1985. Ruminant nitrogen usage. National Research Council, Nat Acad Press, Washington D.C., USA. 185 pp.
Ørskov ER, McDonald I, 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. J Agric Sci 92: 499-503. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600063048
Patra AK, Saxena J, 2011. Exploitation of dietary tannins to improve rumen metabolism and ruminant nutrition. J Sci Food Agric 91: 24-37. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4152
Pellikaan WF, Stringano E, Leenaars J, Bongers LJGM, van Laar-van Schuppen S, Plant J Mueller-Harvey I, 2011. Evaluating effects of tannins on extent and rate of in vitro gas and CH4 production using an automated pressure evaluation system (APES). Anim Feed Sci Technol 166-167: 377-390. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.04.072
Porter LJ, Hrstich LN, Chang, BG, 1986. The conversion of procyanidins and prodelphinidins to cyanidin and delphinidin, Phytochemistry 25: 223-230. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)94533-3
Priolo A, Waghorn GC, Lanza M, Biond L, Pennisi P, 2000. Polyethylene glycol as a means for reducing the impact of condensed tannins in carob pulp: Effects on lamb growth performance and meat quality. J Anim Sci 78: 810-881. https://doi.org/10.2527/2000.784810x
Priolo A, Lanza M, Bella M, Pennisi P, Fasone V, Biondi L, 2002. Reducing the impact of condensed tannins in the diet based on carob pulp using two levels of polyethylene glycol: lamb growth, digestion and meat quality. Anim Res 51: 305-313. https://doi.org/10.1051/animres:2002026
Robles C, Garzino S, 2000. Infraspecific variability in the essential oil composition of Cistus monspeliensis leaves. Phytochemistry 53: 71-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(99)00460-4
Rubanza CDK, Shem MN, Otsyina R, Bakengesa SS, Ichinohe T, Fujihara T, 2005. Polyphenolics and tannins effect on in vitro digestibility of selected Acacia species leaves. Anim Feed Sci Technol 119: 129-142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2004.12.004
SAS Inst., 2004. SAS/STAT 9.1 User´s Guide, Cary, NC, USA.
Scalbert A, 1992. Quantitative methods for the estimation of tannins in plant tissues. In: Plant polyphenols: Synthesis, properties, significance; Hemingway RW, Laks PE (eds). Plenum Press, NY, pp: 259-280. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-3476-1_15
Silanikove N, Gilboa N, Nir I, Perevolotsky A, Nitsan Z, 1996. Effect of a daily supplementation of polyethylene glycol on intake and digestion of tannin-containing leaves (Quercus calliprinos, Pistacia lentiscus, and Ceratonia siliqua) by goats. J Agric Food Chem 44: 199-205. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf950189b
Simões MP, Madeira M, Gazarini L, 2008. The role of phenology, growth and nutrient retention during leaf fall in the competitive potential of two species of Mediterranean shrubs in the context of global climate changes. Flora 203: 578-589. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2007.09.008
Sosa T, Valares C, Alías JC, Chaves Lobón N, 2010. Persistence of flavonoids in Cistus ladanifer soils. Plant Soil 337: 51-63. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-010-0504-1
Theodoridou K, Aufrère J, Andueza D, Pourrat J, Le Morvan A, Stringano E, Mueller-Harvey I, Baumont R, 2010. The effect of condensed tannins in fresh sainfoin (Onobrych viciifolia) on in vivo and in situ digestion in sheep. Anim Feed Sci Technol 160: 23-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2010.06.007
Yisehak K, De Boever JL, Janssens GPJ, 2014. The effect of supplementing leaves of four tannin-rich plant species with polyethylene glycol on digestibility and zootechnical performance of zebu bulls (Bos indicus). J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 98: 417-423. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12068
Zarovali MP, Yiakoulaki MD, Papanastasis VP, 2007. Effects of shrub encroachment on herbage production and nutritive value in semi-arid Mediterranean grasslands. Grass Forage Sci 62: 355-363. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2494.2007.00590.x
© INIA. Manuscripts published are the property of the Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
Forest Systems is an Open Access Journal. All articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the license CC-by must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.