Effect of environmental factors on the composition of terrestrial bryophyte and lichen species in Scots pine forests on fixed sand dunes

  • Mari Tilk Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences. Tartu. 51014. Tallinn Botanic Garden. Tallinn. 11913. http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7702-2142
  • Katri Ots Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences. Tartu. 51014.
  • Tea Tullus Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences. Tartu. 51014.
Keywords: Inland dunes, terrestrial bryophyte and lichen communities, environmental factors, topography


Aim of the study: To investigate terrestrial bryophyte and lichen species richness and environmental factors affecting the composition of species.

Area of the study: Four Boreal zone fixed dunes were selected in the coastal area of the Baltic Sea in southwest Estonia.

Material and methods: Non-metric multidimensional scaling was performed to analyse distribution patterns and environmental factors like canopy cover, photosynthetically active radiation, soil organic horizon thickness and decomposition rates, soil volumetric water content, soil pH and electrical conductivity and soil nutrients correlated with bryophyte and lichen species composition.

Main results: Thirty bryophytes and 22 lichens were found on 232 sample plots, the most frequent species were Pleurozium schreberi (Willd. ex Brid.) Mitt., Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Schimp., Dicranum polysetum Sw. ex anon., Cladonia arbuscula (Wallr.) Flot. and Cladonia furcata (Huds.) Schrad. The lichen species richness was highest on the slopes of the dunes and decreased towards the bottoms and tops; bryophyte species richness was higher on the bottoms and decreased towards the tops of the dunes.

Research highlights: The composition of bryophytes and lichens is significantly influenced by the aspect and the location on the dune, light conditions, soil pH, soil salinity (measured as electrical conductivity) and volumetric water content, thickness of moderately decomposed organic horizon and vascular plant species cover.


Inland dunes; terrestrial bryophyte and lichen communities; environmental factors; topography.


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Author Biographies

Mari Tilk, Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences. Tartu. 51014. Tallinn Botanic Garden. Tallinn. 11913.
Chair of Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering.
Katri Ots, Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences. Tartu. 51014.
Chair of Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering.
Tea Tullus, Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences. Tartu. 51014.
Chair of Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering.


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How to Cite
TilkM., OtsK., & TullusT. (2018). Effect of environmental factors on the composition of terrestrial bryophyte and lichen species in Scots pine forests on fixed sand dunes. Forest Systems, 27(3), e015. https://doi.org/10.5424/fs/2018273-13488
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