Modelling approaches for mixed forests dynamics prognosis. Research gaps and opportunities

  • Felipe Bravo Instituto Universitario de Investigación en Gestión Forestal Sostenible (iuFOR) Universidad de Valladolid & INIA. Departamento de Producción Vegetal y Recursos Forestales, E.T.S. Ingenierías Agrarias Universidad de Valladolid Campus de Palencia Spain
  • Marek Fabrika Department of Forest Management and Geodesy, Faculty of Forestry, Technical University in Zvolen.
  • Christian Ammer Abteilung Waldbau und Waldökologie der gemäßigten Zonen, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Göttingen.
  • Susana Barreiro Forest Research Center, School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, Lisbon. Forest Ecology and Forest Management Group, Wageningen University and Research; Droevendaalsesteeg 3a, 6708PB Wageningen, The Netherlands.
  • Kamil Bielak Department of Silviculture, Warsaw University of Life Sciences.
  • Lluis Coll Departament d’Enginyeria Agroforestal, E.T.S.E.A., Universitat de Lleida - Centre de Ciència i Tecnologia Forestal de Catalunya (CTFC), Solsona.
  • Teresa Fonseca Forest Research Center, School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, Lisbon. Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Department of Forest Sciences and Landscape Arquitecture, Vila Real.
  • Ahto Kangur Estonian University of Life Sciences, Department of Forest Management, Tartu.
  • Magnus Löf Inst för sydsvensk skogsvetenskap - SLU , Alnarp.
  • Katarina Merganičová Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Praha, Suchdol.
  • Maciej Pach Department of Silviculture, Institute of Forest Ecology and Silviculture, University of Agriculture, Krakow.
  • Hans Pretzsch Chair for Forest Growth and Yield Science, Technische Universität München.
  • Dejan Stojanović Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad.
  • Laura Schuler Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zurich.
  • Sanja Peric Croatian Forest Research Institute, Jastrebarsko.
  • Thomas Rötzer Chair for Forest Growth and Yield Science, Technische Universität München.
  • Miren del Río Instituto Universitario de Investigación en Gestión Forestal Sostenible (iuFOR) Universidad de Valladolid & INIA. INIA. Forest Research Centre INIA-CIFOR, Madrid.
  • Martina Dodan Croatian Forest Research Institute, Jastrebarsko.
  • Andrés Bravo-Oviedo Instituto Universitario de Investigación en Gestión Forestal Sostenible (iuFOR) Universidad de Valladolid & INIA. INIA. Forest Research Centre INIA-CIFOR, Madrid. National Museum of Natural Sciences – Spanish National Research Council (MNCN-CSIC). Department of Biogeography and Global Change, Madrid.


Aim of study: Modelling of forest growth and dynamics has focused mainly on pure stands. Mixed-forest management lacks systematic procedures to forecast the impact of silvicultural actions. The main objective of the present work is to review current knowledge and forest model developments that can be applied to mixed forests.

Material and methods: Primary research literature was reviewed to determine the state of the art for modelling tree species mixtures, focusing mainly on temperate forests.

Main results: The essential principles for predicting stand growth in mixed forests were identified. Forest model applicability in mixtures was analysed. Input data, main model components, output and viewers were presented. Finally, model evaluation procedures and some of the main model platforms were described.

Research highlights: Responses to environmental changes and management activities in mixed forests can differ from pure stands. For greater insight into mixed-forest dynamics and ecology, forest scientists and practitioners need new theoretical frameworks, different approaches and innovative solutions for sustainable forest management in the context of environmental and social changes.

Keywords: dynamics, ecology, growth, yield, empirical, classification.


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Author Biography

Felipe Bravo, Instituto Universitario de Investigación en Gestión Forestal Sostenible (iuFOR) Universidad de Valladolid & INIA. Departamento de Producción Vegetal y Recursos Forestales, E.T.S. Ingenierías Agrarias Universidad de Valladolid Campus de Palencia Spain

Catedrático de Ordenación de Montes

Dept. Prod. Vegetal y Recursos Forestales, Universidad de Valladolid

Instituto de investigación en Gestión Forestal Sostenible Universidad de Valladolid-INIA

Coordinador programa Master y Doctorado 'Conservación y Uso Sostenible de Sistemas Forestales'


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How to Cite
BravoF., FabrikaM., AmmerC., BarreiroS., BielakK., CollL., FonsecaT., KangurA., LöfM., MerganičováK., PachM., PretzschH., StojanovićD., SchulerL., PericS., RötzerT., del RíoM., DodanM., & Bravo-OviedoA. (2019). Modelling approaches for mixed forests dynamics prognosis. Research gaps and opportunities. Forest Systems, 28(1), eR002.