Phytohormone effect on seedling quality in Hungarian oak
Aim of study: to find out the effects of four phytohormones, including Indole Butyric Acid (IBA), Indole Acetic Acid (IAA), and Gibberellic acids (GA3, GA4) on seedling growth of Hungarian oak which has a natural distribution in the northwestern of Turkey.
Area of Study: Mature acorns of Hungarian oak were collected from a natural stand in Zonguldak-Ereğli at northwestern region of Turkey.
Material and Methods: Collected acorns of the species were pretreated with 300 ppm of each phytohormone for 24 hours and sown in Yenihan State Forest Nursery of Bartin, Turkey. Two years old bare-root seedlings were used for the measurements of seedling height, root collar diameter, stem, root and seedling fresh weights, and stem, root and seedling dry weights of two bare-root seedlings for each phytohormone treatment.
Main results: Best performance of all studied seedling traits with the exception of root collar diameter was revealed in seedlings with IBA. In contrast, treatment of seeds with GA3 reduced all seedling traits apart from seedling height and root collar diameter. According to Dickson quality index, IBA was displayed to be the most beneficial phytohormone application for generating Hungarian oak seedlings with better mechanical resistance during transplanting.
Research Highlights: IBA should be adopted in planting the seedlings of Hungarian oak for plantation activities.
Keywords: Field performance; Morphology; Phytohormone, Quality; Quercus frainetto.
Abbreviations used: Dickson quality index (DQI), gibberellic acid (GA), indole acetic acid (IAA), indole butyric acid (IBA), root collar diameter (RCD), root dry weight (RDW), root fresh weigh (RFW), seedling dry weight (SEDW), seedling fresh weight (SEFW), seedling height (SH), Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), stem dry weight (STDW), stem fresh weight (STFW).
Acar I, Yasar H, Ercisli S, 2017. Effects of dormancy-breaking treatments on seed germination and seedling growth of Pistacia khinjuk Stocks using as rootstock for pistachio trees. J Appl Bot Food Qual 90: 191-196.
Ameen NM, Al-Imam A, 2007. Effect of soaking periods, gibberellic acid, and benzyladenine on pistachio seeds germination and subsequent seedling growth (Pistacia vera L.). Mesoptamia J Agric 35(2): 2-8.
Arslan M, Şenel P, Özpay Palazoğlu Z, Çiçek E, 2013. Effect of GA3 Application on dormancy breaking and seedling growth of Turkish Filbert (Corylus colurna L.), an important forest tree species, The Western Black Sea Forestry Research Institute of Turkey, https://batikaradeniz.ogm.gov.tr.
Avanoğlu B, Ayan S, Demircioğlu N, Sivacioğlu A, 2005. The evaluation of 2+0-year old Black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe.) seedlings produced in Kastamonu-Taşköprü Forest Nursery according to the norms of Turkish Standards Institution. Sigma Journal of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Yıldız Technical University, 23(2): 73-83.
Ayan S, 2007. Containerized seedling propagation. Chapter 7, (Eds: Yahyaoğlu Z, Genç M.) Seedling standardization: quality seedling propagation and principals of seedling qualification norms. Publication of Suleyman Demirel University, 75: 301-352, Isparta.
Bayala J, Dianda M, Wilson J, Ouedraogo SJ, Sanon K, 2009. Predicting field performance of five irrigated tree species using seedling quality assessment in Burkina Faso, West Africa. New Forests 38(3): 309-322. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11056-009-9149-4
Binotto AF, Dal Col Lucio A, Lopes SJ, 2010. Correlations between growth variables and the Dickson quality index in forest seedlings. Cerne Lavras 16(4): 457-464. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-77602010000400005
Chauhan SK, Sharma R, 2017. Growth and quality indices of different nitrogen fixing tree nursery plants. Ind J Eco 44(2): 344-347.
Demircioğlu N, Ayan S, Avanoğlu B, Sivacioğlu A, 2004. The Evaluation of 2+0-year old Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings produced in Kastamonu-Taşköprü Forest Nursery according to the norms of Turkish Standards Institution. Journal of Engineering Sciences, Pamukkale University, 10(2): 243-251.
Dickson A, Leaf AL, Hosner JF, 1960. Quality appraisal of white spruce and white pine seedlings stock in nurseries. Forest Chron 36(1): 10-13. https://doi.org/10.5558/tfc36010-1
Dilip WS, Singh D, Moharana D, Rout S, Patra SS, 2017. Effect of gibberellic acid (GA) different concentrations at different time intervals on seed germination and seedling growth of Rangpur Lime. JANRM 4(2): 157-165.
Elo A, Immanen J, Nieminen K, Helariutta Y, 2009. Stem cell function during plant vascular development. Semin Cell Dev Biol 20: 1097-1106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.semcdb.2009.09.009
Gezer A, Yücedağ C, 2006. Orman ağacı tohumları ve tohumdan fidan yetiştirme tekniği, Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Yayınları No: 57, 156 pp. (in Turkish).
Grossnickle SC, South DB, 2017. Seedling quality of southern pines: Influence of plant attributes. Tree Planters' Notes 60(2): 29-40.
Hajam MA, Hassan GI, Bhat TA, Bhat IA, Rather AM, Parray EA, Wani MA, Khan IF, 2017. Understanding plant growth regulators, their interplay: For nursery establishment in fruits. Int J Chem Stud 5(5): 905-910.
Kumar M, Agnihotri RK, Vamil E, Sharma R, 2014. Effect of phytohormones on seed germination and seedling growth of Coriandrum sativum L. Pak J Biol Sci 17(4): 594-596. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2014.594.596
Kumaran K, Palani M, Jerlin R, Surendran C, 1994. Effects of growth regulators on seed germination and seedling growth of neem (Azadirachta indica). J Trop For Sci 6(4): 529-532.
Maku JO, Gbadamosi AE, Oke SA, 2014a. Effect of some growth hormones on seed germination and seedling growth of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Thaub). Int J Plant Res 4(1): 36-42.
Maku JO, Gbadamosi AE, Fadoju OA, 2014b. Germination and seedling growth of Mansonia altissima (A. Chev) in response to hormonal treatment. Int J Agric For 4(4): 269-274.
Manas P, Castro E, de las Heras J, 2009. Quality of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) seedlings using waste materials as nursery growing media. New Forests 37: 295-311. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11056-008-9125-4
Manes F, Vitale M, Donato E, Giannini M, Puppi G, 2006. Different ability of three Mediterranean oak species to tolerate progressive water stress. Photosynhetica 44(3): 387-393. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11099-006-0040-7
Mauri A, Enescu CM, Houston Durrant T, de Rigo D, Caudullo G, 2016. Quercus frainetto in Europe: distribution, habitat, usage and threats. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz J, de Rigo D, Caudullo G, Houston Durrant T, Mauri A, (Eds.), European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Publ. Off. EU, Luxembourg, pp. 1-4. https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2016.123
MGM, 2019. Seasonal averages of provinces (1927-2017). retrieved from https://www.mgm.gov.tr/
Mohamed EA, 2013. Growth performance and physiological characteristics of seedlings of six tropical dry land forest tree species in the Sudan. J Nat Res Environ Stud 1(2): 25-33.
OGM, 2015. Forest asset. retrieved from https://www.ogm.gov.tr/
OGM, 2017. Statistics of forestry 2017. retrieved from https://www.ogm.gov.tr/
Rahdari P, Khosroabadi M, Delfani K, 2014. Effect of different concentration of plant hormones (IBA and NAA) on rooting and growth factors in root and stem cuttings of Cordyline terminalis. Journal of Medical and Bioengineering 3(3): 190-194. https://doi.org/10.12720/jomb.3.3.190-194
Rout S, Beura S, Khare N, Patra SS, Nayak S, 2017. Effect of seed pre-treatment with different concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3) on seed germination and seedling growth of Cassia fistula L. J Med Plants Stud 5(6): 135-138.
Sale FA, 2016. Seedling growth of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) Benth). International Journal of Forestry and Horticulture 2(2): 14-20.
Saura-Mas S, Lloret F, 2007. Leaf and shoot water content and leaf dry matter content of Mediterranean woody species with different post-fire regenerative strategies. Ann Bot, 99: 545-554. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcl284
Sivacioğlu A, Ayan S, Gülerol B, 2007. The Effects of some plant growth regulators on morphological traits of scots pine seedlings. Journal of Forestry Faculty, Kastamonu University, 7(2): 155-168.
SPSS Inc, 2002. SPSS 11.0 guide to data analysis, Published by Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA. 637 pp.
Srivastava LM, 2002. Plant growth and development: hormones and environment. Academic Press. 772 p.
Şevik H, Ayan S, Demircioğlu N, Sivacioğlu A, 2003. The Evaluation of bare-rooted and broad-leaved forest tree seedlings grown in Gölköy Forest Nursery (province of Kastamonu) according to the norms of -Turkish Standards Institution. Journal of Forestry Faculty, Gazi University, 3(2): 233-245.
Thangjam U, Sahoo UK, 2017. Effects of different pre-treatments and germination media on seed germination and seedling growth of Parkia timoriana (DC.) Merr. J Exp Biol Agric Sci 5(1): 98-105. https://doi.org/10.18006/2017.5(1).098.105
Yaltırık F, 1984. Türkiye Meşeleri Teşhis Kılavuzu. İstanbul: Yenilik Basımevi (in Turkish).
Yaltırık F, 1998. Dendroloji ders kitabı II, Angiospermae (kapalı tohumlular). İstanbul Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Yayın No: 4104/420 (in Turkish).
Yamada T, Suzuki E, Yamakura T, Tan S, 2005. Tap-root depth of tropical seedlings in relation to species-specific edaphic preferences. J Trop Ecol 21: 155-160. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266467404002238
© INIA. Manuscripts published are the property of the Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
Forest Systems is an Open Access Journal. All articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the license CC-by must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.