Biomass and carbon storage in an age-sequence of Acacia mangium plantation forests in Southeastern region, Vietnam


Aim of the study: The major objective of this study was to estimate the biomass increment and carbon (C) storage of the main ecosystem components in an age-sequence of three Acacia mangium plantation stands.

Area of study: Chang Riec Historical - Cultural Forest, Southeastern region, Vietnam.

Material and methods: In order to assess the biomass of different tree components, 36 trees with diameter at breast height ranging from 13.38 to 22.87 cm were harvested from the different aged stands. Biomasses of understory (shrubs and herbs), and litter were also determined. Carbon storage in the trees and understory biomass, litter, and mineral soil (0-50 cm) were determined by analyzing the C content of each compartment.

Main results: The biomass in trees, understory vegetation, litter, and ecosystem increased with stand age. Soil C represented 61.99% of the total, aboveground tree biomass C made up 26.73%, belowground tree biomass C accounted for 7.01%, and litter comprised 2.96%, whereas only a small amount (1.30%) was associated with understory vegetation. The average C content of total tree (47.97%) was higher than those of understory and litter. Soil organic C stock in the top 50 cm depth in 4-, 7- and 11-year-old stands of A. mangium were 86.86, 126.88 and 140.94 Mg. C ha-1 respectively. Soil C concentration decreased continually with increasing soil depth. Total C storage of three planted forests ranged from 131.36 to 255.86 Mg. C ha-1, of which 56.09 - 67.61% of C storage was in the soil and 26.88 - 40.40% in the trees.

Research highlights: These results suggest that A. mangium is a promising afforestation tree species with fast growing, high biomass accumulation and high C sequestration potential.

Keywords: Acacia mangium plantations; Biomass; Ecosystem carbon storage; Age-sequence; Vietnam.


Download data is not yet available.


Abdallah F, Chaieb M, 2012. The influence of trees on nutrients, water, light availability and understorey vegetation in an arid environment. Appl Veg Sci 15(4): 501-512.

Adam N, Jusoh I, 2018. Allometric model for predicting aboveground biomass and carbon stock of Acacia plantations in Sarawak, Malaysia. Bioresources 13(4): 7381-7394.

Akaike H, 1974. A new look at the statistical model identification. IEEE Trans Automat Contr 19(6):716-723.

Baskerville G, 1972. Use of logarithmic regression in the estimation of plant biomass. Can J For Res 2: 49-53.

Bert D, Danjon F, 2006. Carbon concentration variations in the roots, stem and crown of mature Pinus pinaster (Ait.). For Ecol Manage 222(1-3): 279-295.

Bini D, Santos CAd, Bouillet JP, Gonçalves JLdM, Cardoso EJBN, 2013. Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium in monoculture and intercropped plantations: Evolution of soil and litter microbial and chemical attributes during early stages of plant development. Appl Soil Ecol 63: 57-66.

Blake GR, Hartge KH, 1986. Bulk density. In: Klute A (ed) Methods of soil analysis part 1: physical and mineralogical methods, 2nd edn. Am Soc Agron, Madison, pp. 363-375.

Brown S, 1997. Estimating biomass and biomass change of tropical forests: a primer. FAO Forestry Paper 134, Rome, Italy.

Brown S, Gillespie AJR, Lugo AE, 1989. Biomass estimation methods for tropical forests with applications to forest inventory data. Forest Sci 35(4): 881-902.

Canadell JG, Kirschbaum MUF, Kurz WA, Sanz MJ, Schlamadinger B, Yamagata Y, 2007. Factoring out natural and indirect human effects on terrestrial carbon sources and sinks. Environ Sci Policy 10(4): 370-384.

Cao J, Wang X, Tian Y, Wen Z, Zha T, 2012. Pattern of carbon allocation across three different stages of stand development of a Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) forest. Ecol Res 27(5): 883-892.

Chave J, Andalo C, Brown S, Cairns MA, Chambers JQ, Eamus D, Fölster H, Fromard F, Higuchi N, Kira T et al., 2005. Tree allometry and improved estimation of carbon stocks and balance in tropical forests. Oecologia 145: 87-99.

Chave J, Réjou-Méchain M, Búrquez A, Chidumayo E, Colgan MS, Delitti WBC, Duque A, Eid T, Fearnside, PM, Goodman RC et al., 2014. Improved allometric models to estimate the aboveground biomass of tropical trees. Glob Chang Biol 20(10): 3177-3190.

Chen GS, Yang ZJ, Gao R, Xie JS, Guo JF, Huang ZQ, Yang YS, 2013. Carbon storage in a chronosequence of Chinese fir plantations in Southern China. For Ecol Manag 300(15): 68-76.

Cheng J, Benny KGT, Bin F, Fushan L, Like Z, Xinqing L, 2015. Biomass accumulation and carbon sequestration in an age-sequence of Zanthoxylum bungeanum plantations under the Grain for Green Program in karst regions, Guizhou Province. Agric For Meteorol 203: 88-95.

Cheng X, Han H, Kang F, Song Y, Liu K, 2014. Variation in biomass and carbon storage by stand age in pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) planted ecosystem in Mt. Taiyue, Shanxi, China. J Plant Interact 9(1): 521-528.

Deng L, Han QS, Zhang C, Tang ZS, Shangguan ZP, 2017. Aboveground and belowground ecosystem biomass accumulation and carbon sequestration with Caragana korshinskii Kom plantation development. Land Degrad Dev 28(3): 906-917.

Dhamodaran TK, Chacko KC, 1999. Growth and wood characteristics of Acacia mangium grown in Kerala. Research Report No.174, Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi; p. 60.

Dixon RK, Solomon AM, Brown S, Houghton RA, Trexier MC, Wisniewski J, 1994. Carbon Pools and Flux of Global Forest Ecosystems. Science 263(5144): 185-190.

Du H, Zeng F, Peng W, Wang K, Zhang H, Liu L, Song T, 2015. Carbon storage in a Eucalyptus plantation chronosequence in Southern China. Forests 6(6): 1763-1778.

Eglin T, Ciais P, Shi LP, Barré P, Smith P, 2011. Overview on Response of Global Soil Carbon Pools to Climate and Land-Use Changes. In: Sauer T.J. et al. (eds): Sustaining Soil Productivity in Response to Global Climate Change: 183-199.

Fan S, Gloor M, Mahlman J, Pacala S, Sarmiento J, Takahashi T, Tans P, 1998. A large terrestrial carbon sink in North America implied by atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide data and models. Science 282(5388): 442-446.

Fang J, Chen A, Peng C, Zhao S, Ci L, 2001. Changes in forest biomass carbon storage in China between 1949 and 1998. Science 292(5525): 2320-2322.

FAO, 2010. Global Forest Resources Assessment, Main Report; FAO Forestry Paper 163; FAO: Rome, Italy.

FAO, 2016. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015. How Are the World's Forests Changing? 2nd ed. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, pp. 1-54.

Forss E, Von Gadow K, Saborowski J, 1996. Growth models for unthinned Acacia mangium plantation in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. J Trop For Sci 8(4): 449-462.

Gao Y, Cheng J, Ma Z, Zhao Y, Su J, 2014. Carbon storage in biomass, litter, and soil of different plantations in a semiarid temperate region of Northwest China. Ann Forest Sci 71(4): 427-435.

Hai VD, Trieu DT, Tiep NH, Bich NV, Duong DT, 2009. Research on carbon sequestration potential and commercial value of some major types of plantation forests in Vietnam. Final Project Report No. VAFS2009; Vietnamese Academy of Forest Sciences: Hanoi, Vietnam; p. 190.

Härkönen S, Lehtonen A, Eerikäinen K, Peltoniemi M, Mäkelä A, 2011. Estimating forest carbon fluxes for large regions based on process-based modelling, NFI data and Landsat satellite images. For Ecol Manag 262(12): 2364-2377.

He B, Liu YH, Yu HG, Qin WM, Wei SH, Cai SW, 2009. Carbon density and storage of Acacia mangium plantation ecosystem in Nanning, Guang Xi. Scientla Silvae Sinicae 45(2): 6-11.

He Y, Qin L, Li Z, Liang X, Shao M, Tan L, 2013. Carbon storage capacity of monoculture and mixed-species plantations in subtropical China. For Ecol Manag 295: 193-198.

Herdiyanti I, Sulistyawati E, 2009. Carbon stocks in Acacia mangium Willd. stands of different ages. In: Kanakaraju D, Kalu M, Ipor I, Lim CK, Lim PT, Roslan HA, Esa Y, Razali A, Ho WS, Mohamad S et al., editors. Proceedings of Conference on Natural Resources in the Tropics 3: Harnessing Tropical Natural Resources through Innovation and Technologies, 3-5 August 2009; Sarawak, Malaysia. Kota Samarahan, Malaysia: Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, pp. 679-685.

Houghton RA, 2007. Balancing the Global Carbon Budget. Annu Rev Earth Pl Sc 35(1): 313-347.

Huang L, Liu J, Shao Q, Xu X, 2012. Carbon sequestration by forestation across China: Past, present, and future. Renew Sust Energ Rev 16(2): 1291-1299.

Hunter MO, Keller M, Vitoria D, Morton DC, 2013. Tree height and tropical forest biomass estimation. Biogeosciences 10: 8385-8399.

IBM Corp., 2017. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 25.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.

IBST, 2009. Vietnam Building Code Natural Physical & Climatic Data for Construction. QCVN 02:2009/BXD. Institute for Building Science and Technology (IBST), Vietnam.

Ilyas S, 2013. Allometric equation and carbon sequestration of Acacia mangium willd. in coal mining reclamation areas. Civil and Environmental Research 3(1): 8-16.

IPCC, 2003. Good practice guidance for land use, land use change and forestry, Kanagawa, Japan, The intergovernmental panel on climate change national greenhouse gas inventories programme.

IPCC, 2007. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007. B. Metz, O.R. Davidson, P.R. Bosch, R. Dave, L.A. Meyer (eds). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, USA.

Jandl R, Lindner M, Vesterdal L, Bauwens B, Baritz R, Hagedorn F, Johnson DW, Minkkinen K, Byrne KA, 2007. How strongly can forest management influence soil carbon sequestration? Geoderma 137(3-4): 253-268.

Justine MF, Yang W, Wu F, Tan B, Khan MN, Zhao Y, 2015. Biomass stock and carbon sequestration in a chronosequence of Pinus massoniana plantations in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River. Forests 6(10): 3665-3682.

Justine MF, Yang W, Wu F, Khan MN, 2017. Dynamics of biomass and carbon sequestration across a chronosequence of Masson pine plantations. J Geophys Res-Biogeo 122(3): 578-591.

Koutika LS, Richardson DM, 2019. Acacia mangium Willd: benefits and threats associated with its increasing use around the world. For Ecosyst 6: 2.

Lal R, 2005. Forest soils and carbon sequestration. For Ecol Manag 220(1-3): 242-258.

Lee KL, Ong KH, King PJH, Chubo JK, Su DSA, 2015. Stand productivity, carbon content, and soil nutrients in different stand ages of Acacia mangium in Sarawak, Malaysia. Turk J Agric For 39(1): 154-161.

Li C, Zha T, Liu J, Jia X, 2013. Carbon and nitrogen distribution across a chronosequence of secondary lacebark pine in China. Forest Chron 89(2): 192-198.

Madgwick HAI, Satoo T, 1975. On estimating the aboveground weights of tree stands. Ecology 56(6): 1446-1450.

MARD, 2014a. Promulgating a list of main tree species for planting production forests and a list of major tree species for afforestation according to forestry-ecological regions. No. 4961/QD-BNN-TCLN. Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Developement (MARD), Hanoi, Vietnam.

MARD, 2014b. Promulgation of the state of National forests. No. 3322/QD-BNN-TCLN. Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Developement (MARD), Hanoi, Vietnam.

Ming A, Jia H, Zhao J, Tao Y, Li Y, 2014. Aboveground and belowground carbon stocks in an Indigenous tree (Mytilaria laosensis) plantation chronosequence in Subtropical China. Plos One 9(10): e109730.

Mokany K, Raison RI, Prokushkin AS, 2006. Critical analysis of root:shoot ratios in terrestrial biomes. Glob Chang Biol 12(1): 84-96.

Nelson DW, Sommers LE, 1982. Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. In Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2; Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R., Eds.; American Society of Agronomy, Inc.: Madison, WI, USA. pp. 539-579.

Ngo KM, Turner BL, Muller-Landau HC, Davies SJ, Larjavaara M, Nik Hassan NFb, Lum S, 2013. Carbon stocks in primary and secondary tropical forests in Singapore. For Ecol Manag 296: 81-89.

Ngoan TT, Chung NT, 2018. Aboveground biomass of Acacia auriculiformis×Acacia mangium plantations in Dongnai Province. Journal of Forest Science and Technology 6: 61-68.

Noh NJ, Son Y, Lee SK, Seo KW, Heo SJ, Yi MJ, Park PS, Kim RH, Son YM, Lee KH, 2010. Carbon and nitrogen storage in an age-sequence of Pinus densiflora stands in Korea. Sci. China Life Sci 53(7): 822-830.

NRC, 1983. National Research Council Mangium and other fast grow Acacias for the humid tropics, National Academic Press, Washington D.C, pp. 1-53.

Parresol BR, 1999. Assessing tree and stand biomass: a review with examples and critical comparisons. Forest Sci 45(4): 573-593.

Pan Y, Birdsey RA, Fang J, Houghton R, Kauppi PE, Kurz WA, Phillips OL, Shvidenko A, Lewis SL, Canadell JG et al., 2011. A large and persistent carbon dink in the World's forests. Science 333(6045): 988-993.

Paula RR, Bouillet JP, Trivelin PCO, Zeller B, Moraes Gonçalves JL, Nouvellon Y, Bouvet JM, Plassard C, Laclau JP, 2015. Evidence of short-term belowground transfer of nitrogen from Acacia mangium to Eucalyptus grandis trees in a tropical planted forest. Soil Biol Biochem 91:99-108.

Peichl M, Arain MA, 2006. Aboveground and belowground ecosystem biomass and carbon pools in an age-sequence of Temperate pine plantation forests. Agric For Meteorol 140(1-4): 51-63.

Phuong VT, 2011. Biomass and carbon stocks of Pinus kesiya plantations in Hoangsuphi district, Hagiang Province. Science and Technology Journal of Agriculture & Rural Development 2: 89 - 93.

Phuong VT, Hai VD, 2011. Biomass structure of Pinus kesiya plantation in Lamdong Province. Vietnam Journal of Forest Science 2: 1812-1817.

Pugh TAM, Lindeskog M, Smith B, Poulter B, Arneth A, Haverd V, Calle L, 2019. Role of forest regrowth in global carbon sink dynamics. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 116(10): 4382-4387.

Qin WM, He B, Yu HG, Chen WJ, 2007. Biomass productivity of Acacia mangium plantations of different age classes. J Northeast For Univ 35(1): 22-24.

Ren H, Yu Z, 2008. Biomass changes of an Acacia mangium plantation in Southern China. J Trop For Sci 20(2): 105-110.

Ruiz-Peinado R, Montero G, Rio M del, 2012. Biomass models to estimate carbon stocks for hardwood tree species. Forest Syst 21(1): 42-52

Scharlemann JPW, Tanner EVJ, Hiederer R, Kapos V, 2014. Global soil carbon: understanding and managing the largest terrestrial carbon pool. Carbon Manag 5(1): 81-91.

Snowdon P, Eamus D, Gibbons P, Khanna H, Raison J, Kirschbaum M, 2000. Synthesis of allometrics review of root biomass and design of future woody biomass sampling strategies. National Carbon Accounting Technical Report No. 17. Australian Greenhouse Office, Canberra.

Temesgen H, Affleck D, Poudel K, Gray A, Sessions J, 2015. A review of the challenges and opportunities in estimating aboveground forest biomass using tree-level models. Scand J Forest Res 30(4): 326-335.

Thanh NM, Cuong LV, 2017. Carbon storage in soil under Acacia mangium forest cover in Yenbai city, Yenbai Province. Science and Technology Journal of Agriculture & Rural Development 12: 120-124.

Thomas SC, Martin AR, 2012. Carbon content of tree tissues: A synthesis. Forests 3 (2): 332-352.

Turnbull JW, Midgley SJ, Cossalter C, 1998. Tropical Acacias planted in Asia: an overview. In: "Recent developments in Acacia planting", Turnbull JW, Crompton HR, Pinyopusarerk K (eds.). Proceedings of an International Workshop held in Hanoi, Vietnam, 27-30 October 1997. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, ACIAR Proceedings No.82, pp. 1-383.

Uri V, Varik M, Aosaar J, Kanal A, Kukumägi M, Lõhmus K, 2012. Biomass production and carbon sequestration in a fertile silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) forest chronosequence. For Ecol Manage 267: 117-126.

Vanninen P, Ylitalo H, Sievänen R, Mäkelä A, 1996. Effects of age and site quality on the distribution of biomass in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Trees 10(4): 231-238.

Wang F, Xu X, Zou B, Guo Z, Li Z, Zhu W, 2013. Biomass accumulation and carbon sequestration in four different aged Casuarina equisetifolia coastal shelterbelt plantations in South China. Plos One 8(10): e77449.

White H, 1980. A Heteroscedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroscedasticity. Econometrica 48: 817-838.

Xie XY, Cui J, Shi WT, Liu XJ, Tao X, Wang Q, Xu XN, 2016. Biomass partition and carbon storage of Cunninghamia lanceolata chronosequence plantations in Dabie Mountains in East China. Dendrobiology 76: 165-174.

Xu C, Zhang W, Song G, 2000. Analysis on the understory herb characteristic of broadleaf Korean pine in Xiaoxing'an Mountain. Forest Sci Technol 25:4-6.

Xu W, Yin Y, Zhou S, 2007. Social and economic impacts of carbon sequestration and land use change on peasant households in rural China: A case study of Liping, Guizhou Province. J Environ Manage 85(3): 736-745.

Xu B, Guo Z, Piao S, Fang J, 2010. Biomass carbon stocks in China's forests between 2000 and 2050: A prediction based on forest biomass-age relationships. Sci China Life Sci 53(7): 776-783.

Yang B, Xue W, Yu S, Zhou J, Zhang W, 2019. Effects of stand age on biomass allocation and allometry of Quercus acutissima in the Central Loess Plateau of China. Forests 10 (1):41.

Yue JW, Guan JH, Deng L, Zhang JG, Li G, Du S, 2018. Allocation pattern and accumulation potential of carbon stock in natural spruce forests in northwest China. PeerJ 6: e4859.

Zelazowski P, Malhi Y, Huntingford C, Sitch S, Fisher JB, 2011. Changes in the potential distribution of humid tropical forests on a warmer planet. Philos T R Soc A 369(1934): 137-160.

Zeng ZQ, Wang SL, Zhang CM, Chao G, 2013. Carbon storage in evergreen broad-leaf forests in mid-subtropical region of China at four succession stages. J Forestry Res 24: 677-682.

Zhang H, Duan H, Song M, Guan D, 2018. The dynamics of carbon accumulation in Eucalyptus and Acacia plantations in the Pearl River delta region. Ann Forest Sci 75: 40.

Zhang X, Zhang X, Han H, Shi Z, Yang X, 2019. Biomass accumulation carbon sequestration in an age sequence of Mongolian pine plantations in Horqin Sandy Land, China. Forests 10(2): 197.

Zianis D, Mencuccini M, 2004. On simplifying allometric analyses of forest biomass. For Ecol Manag 187 (2):311-332.

Zianis D, Xanthopoulos G, Kalabokidis K, Kazakis G, Ghosn D, Roussou O, 2011. Allometric equations for aboveground biomass estimation by size class for Pinus brutia Ten. Trees growing in North and South Aegean Islands, Greece. Eur J For Res 130(2): 145-160.

Zribi L, Chaar H, Khaldi A, Hanchi B, Mouillot F, Gharbi F, 2016. Estimate of biomass and carbon pools in disturbed and undisturbed oak forests in Tunisia. Forest Syst 25(2): e060.

How to Cite
LevanC., BuimanhH., Oluwasanmi TopeB.-O., XuX., NguyenminhT., LakC., NebiyouL., WangJ., & BuivanT. (2020). Biomass and carbon storage in an age-sequence of Acacia mangium plantation forests in Southeastern region, Vietnam. Forest Systems, 29(2), e009.
Research Articles