Susceptibility of Pinus nigra and Cedrus libani to Turkish Gremmeniella abietina isolates
AbstractGremmeniella abietina causes shoot dieback and stem cankers on conifers throughout Northern hemisphere. The aim of this study was to investigate the virulence of Turkish G. abietina isolates in a field experiment. The lower branches of 15-20-year-old P. nigra and C. libani in a plantation site at 1,050 m a.s.l. in Isparta were inoculated at 1-2-month intervals during September-January. Five isolates obtained from high altitude mountainous forests were used. Each isolate was inoculated into two branches per tree and repeated ten times on both tree species at each inoculation date. The branches were sampled at the end of February, and in August, and lesion lengths in the inner bark measured. The mean lesion length on P. nigra and C libani were 10.6 ± 0.8 and 3.8 ± 0.2 mm in February and 17.6 ± 1.4 and 7.8 ± 0.8 mm in August, respectively. Differences in the mean lesion length between the isolates were small. Nevertheless, there were significant differences between the isolates on P. nigra in November and January inoculations, and on C. libani at all four inoculation times. The mean lesion lengths for all isolates at both sampling dates was the highest (p < 0.01) in December inoculations for both P. nigra (22.0 ± 1.9 February; 32.9 ± 2.9 August) and C. libani (5.6 ± 0.7; 11.3 ± 1.2). There was no difference between the September and January inoculations on P. nigra, despite the almost six-fold difference in incubation period. During the December inoculations, the trees were most likely in winter dormancy, i.e. unable to defend themselves, which would explain the large lesions.
Aitken E.A.P., 1993. Susceptibility of four conifer species to Gremmeniella abietina. Eur J For Pathol 23, 153-162.
Barklund P., Unestam T., 1988. Infection experiments with Gremmeniella abietina on seedlings of Norway spruce and Scots pine. Eur J For Pathol 18, 409-420.
Blenis P.V., Patton R.F., Spear R.N., 1984. Effect of temperature on the ability of Gremmeniella abietina to survive and to colonize host tissue. Eur J For Pathol 14, 153-164.
Butin H., 1995. Tree Diseases and Disorders: Causes, Biology and Control in Forest and Amenity Trees. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. 252 pp.
Dietrichson J., Solheim H., 1987. Differences between provenances of Pinus contorta var. latifolia in resistance to attack by Gremmeniella abietina. Scand J For Res 2, 273-279.
Doğmuş–Lehtijärvi H.T., Lehtijärvi A., Karaca G., Aday A.G., Oskay F., 2009. Susceptibility of different coniferous seedlings inoculated with Diplodia pinea. Proc IUFRO Conf on “Foliage, shoot and stem diseases of forest trees”, Eğirdir (Turkey), May 11-16. pp. 48-57.
Donaubauer E., 1972. Distribution and hosts of Scleroderris lagerbergii in Europe and North America. Eur J For Pathol 2, 6-11.
Hansson P., 1998. Susceptibility of different provenances of Pinus sylvestris, Pinus contorta and Picea abies to Gremmeniella abietina. Eur J For Pathol 28, 21-32.
Karlman M., 2001. Risks associated with the introduction of Pinus contorta in northern Sweden with respect to pathogens. Forest Ecol Manage 141, 97-105. Karlman M., Hansson P., Witzell J., 1994. Scleroderris canker on lodgepole pine introduced in northern Sweden. Can J For Res 24, 1948-1959.
Lehtijärvi A., Aday A.G., Doğmuş–Lehtijärvi H.T., 2011. Cedrus libani: the most susceptible Turkish conifer species to local Heterobasidion isolates in spring inoculations. For Pathol 41, 1-6.
Lehtijärvi A., Doğmuş–Lehtijärvi H.T., Oskay F., Aday A.G., 2010a. Snow molds and Scleroderris canker on Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana on the Dedegül Mountain in Turkey. Proc 13th Congress Mediterranean Phytopathol Union (MPU), Rome (Italy), June 20-25. pp. 241-242.
Lehtijärvi A., Oskay F., Aday A.G., Doğmuş–Lehtijärvi H.T., 2010b. Isparta– Yenişarbademli İlçesi Konifer Ormanlarında İbre ve Sürgün Hastalıklarına Neden Olan Fungal Etmenlerin Tespiti [In Turkish]. 3. National Black Sea Region forestry Congress, Artvin (Turkey), May 20-22. pp. 1411- 1419.
Marosy M., Patton R.F., Upper C.D., 1989. A conducive day concept to explain the effect of low temperature on the development of Scleroderris shoot blight. Phytopathology 79, 1293-1301.
Nevalainen S. & Uotila A., 1984. The susceptibility of Scots pine to Gremmeniella abietina. Växtskyddsnotiser 48, 76-80.
Patton R.F., Spear R.N., Blenis P.V., 1984. The mode of infection and early stages of colonization of pines by Gremmeniella abietina. Eur J For Pathol 14, 193-202.
Petäistö R-L., Kurkela T., 1993. The susceptibility of Scots pine seedlings to Gremmeniella abietina: effect of growth phase, cold and drought stress. Eur J For Pathol 23, 385-399.
Petäistö R.L., Heinonen J., 2003. Conidial dispersal of Gremmeniella abietina: climatic and microclimatic factors. For Pathol 33, 353-373.
Ranta H., Pulkkinen P., Neuvonen S., 2000. Susceptibility of six Scots pine clones to the pathogenic fungus Gremmeniella abietina. Scand J For Res 15, 7-12.
Roll-Hansen F., 1964. Scleroderris lagerbergii Gremmen (Crumenula abietina Lagerb.) and girdling of Pinus sylvestris L. Medd norske Skogforsøksv 19, 153-175.
Roll-Hansen F., 1972. Scleroderris lagerbergii. Resistance and difference in attacks between pines species and provenances. Eur J For Pathol 2, 26-39.
Sonesson J., Swedjemark G., Almqvist C., Jansson G., Hannrup B., Rosvall O. and Kron J., 2007. Genetic variation in responses of Pinus sylvestris trees to natural infection by Gremmeniella abietina. Scand J For Res 22, 290-298. Soylu S., Kurt Ş., Soylu E.M., 2001. Determination of important fungal disease agents on pine trees in the Kahramanmaraş regional forests. J Turk Phytopath 30, 79.
Spaulding P., 1961. Foreign Diseases of Forest Trees of the World. United States Department of Agriculture, Handbook no: 197.
Stephan B. R., Scholz F. and Singh U. P. 1984. Physiological and biochemical factors in Austrian pine clones with different susceptibility to Gremmeniella abietina. In Manion, P. D. (ed.). Scleroderris Canker of Conifers, Martinus Nijhoff:Dr W. Junk Publishers. The Hague. ISBN 90-247- 2912-2: 181-188.
Stephan B. R., Schulze I., (ed) 1987. Scleroderris Canker Disease of Conifers. Bibliography of the Disease and Its Pathogen during the Last 100 years (1883–1986). Bundesforschungsanstalt für Forst und Holzwirtschaft, Grosshansdorf, Germany. 111 pp.
Terho M., Uotila A., 1999. Virulence of two Finnish Gremmeniella abietina types (A and B). Eur J For Pathol 29, 143-152.
Thomsen I.M., 2009. Precipitation and temperature as factors in Gremmeniella abietina epidemics. For Pathol 39, 56-72.
Yokota S., Uozumi T., Matsuzaki S., 1974. Scleroderris canker of Todo-fir in Hokkaido, Northern Japan. II Physiological and pathological characteristics of the causal fungus. Eur J For Pathol 4, 155-166.
© INIA. Manuscripts published are the property of the Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
Forest Systems is an Open Access Journal. All articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the license CC-by must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.