Effects of submergence on growth and survival of saplings of three wetland trees differing in adaptive mechanisms for flood tolerance
Aim of study: Withstanding total submergence and reaeration following submergence is essential for the survival and establishment of wetland species. We focused on “LOES–low oxygen escape syndrome” and “LOQS–low oxygen quiescence syndrome” and compared tolerances to total submergence among wetland woody species differing in morphological adaptation to soil flooding.
Area of study, materials and methods: This study examined the survival of 2-year-old saplings of Taxodium distichum (LOQS species), and Alnus japonica and Metasequoia glyptostroboides, (LOES species), during and after total submergence. Saplings were completely submerged, then de-submerged to determine trends in survival and growth.
Main results: The M. glyptostroboides and A. japonica saplings could not survive prolonged submergence for more than 8 weeks, whereas saplings of T. distichum survived for over 2 years. Submerged saplings of all species showed no significant growth or modifications in morphology and anatomy under water, such as shoot elongation, adventitious root formation, and/or aerenchyma development. All T. distichum saplings that were de-submerged in the second year had the same pattern of shoot growth regardless of differences in timing and seasonality of de-submergence. Wood formation in T. distichum saplings ceased during submergence and resumed after de-submergence in spring and summer, but not in autumn.
Research highlights: T. distichum saplings, which survived longer submergence periods than A. japonica and M. glyptostroboides, had physiological characteristics, such as suspension of growth and metabolism, which allowed survival of protracted total submergence (at least 2 years) when saplings were immersed during the dormant stage before leaf flushing.
Keywords: Alnus japonica; Metasequoia glyptostroboides; survival rates; Taxodium distichum; total submergence.
Abbreviations: LOES, low oxygen escape syndrome; LOQS, low oxygen quiescence syndrome.
Bailey-Serres J, Voesenek L. 2008. Flooding stress: acclimations and genetic diversity. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59, 313-319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.59.032607.092752
Colmer TD, Pedersen O. 2008. Oxygen dynamics in submerged rice (Oryza sativa). New Phytol 178, 326-334. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2007.02364.x
Colmer TD, Voesenek LACJ. 2009. Flooding tolerance: suites of plant traits in variable environments. Funct Plant Biol 36, 665-681. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/FP09144
da Fonseca SF, Pirdade MTF, Schöngart J. 2009. Wood growth of Tabebuia barbata (E. Mey.) Sandwith (Bignoniaceae) and Vatairea guianensis Aubl. (Fabaceae) in Central Amazonian black-water (igapó) and white-water (várzea) floodplain forests. Trees 23, 127-134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00468-008-0261-4
Dicke SG, Toliver JR. 1990. Growth and development of bald cypress/water-tupelo stands under continuous versus seasonal flooding. For Ecol Manage 33/34, 523-530.
Fujita H. 2002. Wetland forests. In: Ecology of riparian forests (Sakio H, Yamamoto F, eds). Tokyo University Press, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 98-137. [in Japanese].
Gibbs J, Greenway H. 2003. Mechanisms of anoxia tolerance in plants. I. Growth, survival and anaerobic catabolism. Funct Plant Biol 30, 1-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/PP98095
Grosse W, Schulte A, Fujita H. 1993. Pressurized transport in two Japanese alder species in relation to their habitats. Ecol Res 8, 151-158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02348527
Inoue K. 1998. Comparative study on flood-tolerance and the growth characteristics under flooding between Taxodium distichum and Metasequoia glyptostroboides. Bachelor's Thesis, Tottori University, Tottori. [in Japanese].
Kozlowski TT. 1997. Responses of woody plants to flooding and salinity. Tree Physiol Monograph No.1.
Kozlowski TT, Kramer PJ, Pallardy SG. 1991. Soil aeration, compaction, and flooding. In: The physiological ecology of woody plants (Kozlowski TT, Kramer PJ, Pallardy SG, eds). Academic Press, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 303-337. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-424160-2.50012-4
Middleton B. 2000. Hydrochory, seed banks, and regeneration dynamics along the landscape boundaries of a forested wetland. Plant Ecol 146, 167-181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1009871404477
Middleton B. 2005. Primary production in an impounded baldcypress swamp (Taxodium distichum) at the northern limit of the range. Wetlands Ecol Manage 13, 15-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11273-003-5024-9
Momohara A. 2005. Palaeoecology and history of Metasequoia in Japan, with reference to extinction and survival in East Asia, In: Topics in geobiology 22,The geobiology and ecology of Metasequoia (Lepage B, Williams C, Yang H, eds). Springer, Norwell, MA, Netherlands. pp. 115-136.
Moriwaki Y. 2000. Growth and physiological characteristics of Taxodium distichum saplings under flooding condition. Bachelor's thesis, Tottori University, Tottori. [in Japanese].
Parolin P. 2009. Submergence in darkness: adaptation to prolonged submergence by woody species of the Amazonian floodplains. Ann Bot 103, 359-376. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcn216
Setter TL, Laureles EV. 1996. The beneficial effect of reduced elongation growth on submergence tolerance of rice. J Exp Bot 47, 1551-1559. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/47.10.1551
Setter TL, Bhekashut P, Greenway H. 2010. Desiccation of leaves after de-submergence is one cause for intolerance to complete submergence of the rice cultivar IR 42. Funct Plant Biol 37, 1096-1104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/FP10025
Schöngart J, FPiedade MT, Wittmann F, Junk WJ, Worbes M. 2005. Wood growth patterns of Macrolobium acaciifolium (Benth.) Benth. (Fabaceae) in Amazonian black-water and white-water floodplain forests. Oecologia 145, 454-461. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-005-0147-8
Shinshoh H. 1985 Alder forests in Kushiro Shitsugen marshes. North For 37, 92-97. [in Japanese].
Voesenek LACJ, Colmer TD, Pierik R, Millenaar FF, Peeters AJM. 2006. How plants cope with complete submergence. New Phytol 170, 213-226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01692.x
Waldhoff D, Furch B, Junk WJ. 2002. Fluorescence parameters, chlorophyll concentration, and anatomical features as indicators for flood adaptation of an abundant tree species in Central Amazonia: Symmeria panicuata. Environ Exp Bot 48, 225-235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0098-8472(02)00037-0
Wolter KE. 1968. A new method for making xylem growth. Forest Science 14, 102-104.
© CSIC. Manuscripts published are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
Forest Systems is an Open Access Journal. All articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the license CC-by must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.