Effects of fraying by deer on forest plants in the southern Cantabrian Mountains (NW Spain)
AbstractDistinctive features of red and roe deer fraying signs found in three forest types and conifer plantations at the southern slopes of the Cantabrian Mountains are described. When compared with roe deer frayings, the measurementsof red deer frayings were much larger, the animals used thicker ligneous stems and the damaged sprouts died more frecuently, Both cervids frayed selectively on certain tree or shrub species and within characteristic thickness intervals. Data revealed a period of intensive fraying damage in july and an assessment of the spread of fatal frayings among forest type and plant species is made. Several specially attractive forest plants for fraying are idenfitied and the overall impact of damage on regeneration of forests and growth of plantations is assessed.
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