Evaluation of Forest Dynamics Focusing on Various Minimum Harvesting Ages in Multi-Purpose Forest Management Planning

  • Derya Mumcu Küçüker Assistant Professor. Faculty of Forestry, Karadeniz Technical University. Trabzon.
  • Emin Zeki Baskent Professor, Faculty of Forestry, Karadeniz Technical University. Trabzon.


Aim of study: Exploring the potential effects of various forest management strategies on the ability of forest ecosystems to sequester carbon and produce water has become of great concern among forest researchers. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of management strategies with different minimum harvesting ages on the amount and monetary worth of carbon, water and timber values.

Area of study: The study was performed in the Yalnızçam planning unit located on the northeastern part of Turkey.

Material and Methods: A forest management model with linear programming (LP) was developed to determine the effects of various minimum harvesting ages. Twenty-four different management strategies were developed to maximize the economic Net Present Value (NPV) of timber, water and carbon values in addition to their absolute quantities over time. Amount and NPV of forest values and ending inventory with different minimum harvesting ages were used as performance indicators to assess and thus understand forest dynamics.

Main results: Amount and NPV of timber and carbon generally decreased with extended minimum harvesting ages. However, similar trends were not observed for water production values. The results pointed out that the performance of a management strategy depends highly on the development of a management strategy and the initial forest structure aside from the growth rate.

Research highlights: Minimum harvesting ages affect forest outputs under the same objectives and constraints. Performance of a management strategy highly depends on initial age class structure in addition to the contents of a management strategy.

Keywords: linear programming; forest management planning; carbon sequestration; water production; forest dynamics.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Derya Mumcu Küçüker, Assistant Professor. Faculty of Forestry, Karadeniz Technical University. Trabzon.
forest management
Emin Zeki Baskent, Professor, Faculty of Forestry, Karadeniz Technical University. Trabzon.
Forest management



Alemdag S, 1967. Türkiye'de Sarıçam ormanlarının kuruluşu, verim gücü ve bu ormanların işletilmesinde takip edilecek esaslar. OAE Yayinlari, Teknik Bülten, No 20, Ankara, Turkey.

Anonymous, 2001. Su havzaları, kullanımı ve yönetimi. Sekizinci bes yıllık kalkınma planı özel ihtisas komisyonu raporu. Yayin No DPT2555-OIK, 571, Ankara, Turkey.

Asan U, Destan, S, Ozkan UY, 2002. Istanbul korularının karbon depolama, oksijen üretimi ve toz tutma kapasitesinin kestirilmesi. Orman Amenajmaninda Kavramsal Acilimlar ve Yeni Hedefler Sempozyum Bildiriler Kitabi, IU Orman Fakültesi, 194-202.

Backéus S, Wikstrom P, Lamas T, 2005. A model for regional analysis of carbon sequestration and timber production. Forest Ecol Manag 216, 28-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2005.05.059

Baskent EZ, Mumcu-Kucuker D, 2010. Incorporating water production and carbon sequestration into forest management planning: a case study in Yalnızçam planning unit. Forest Syst 19, 98-111. http://dx.doi.org/10.5424/fs/2010191-01171

Baskent EZ, Baskaya S, Terzioglu S, 2008a. Developing and implementing participatory and ecosystem based multiple use forest management planning approach (ETCAP): Yalnızçam case study. Forest Ecol Manag 256, 798-807. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2008.05.039

Baskent EZ, Keles S, Yolasigmaz HA, 2008b. Comparing multipurpose forest management with timber management, incorporating timber, carbon and oxygen values: a case study. Scand J Forest Res 23, 105-120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02827580701803536

Benyon R, England J, Eastham J, Polglase P, White D, 2007. Tree water use in forestry compared to other dry-land agricultural crops in the victorian context: report prepared for the department of primary industries victoria to promote scientific knowledge in this area. Ensis Technical Report 159, 50 pp.

Birot Y, Gracia C, Palahi M, 2011. Water for forest and people in the Mediterranean Region: a challenging balance. EFI series "what science can tell us" No:1 175 pp.

Bosch JM, Hewlett JD, 1982. A review of catchment experiments to determine the effect of vegetation changes on water yield and evapotranspiration. J Hydrol 55, 3-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(82)90117-2

Brown AE, Zhang L, Mcmahon TA, Western AW, Vertessy RA, 2005. A review of paired catchment studies for determining changes in water yield resulting from alterations in vegetation. J Hydrol. 310, 28-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2004.12.010

Brown S, 2002. Measuring carbon in forest: current status and future challenges. Environ pollut 116, 363-372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(01)00212-3

Brown SL, Schroeder P, Kern JS, 1999. Spatial distribution of the eastern USA. Forest Ecol Manag 123, 81-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(99)00017-1

Calish S, Fight RD, Teeguarden DE, 1978. How do non timber values affect Douglas-fir rotations?. J Fores 76, 217-221.

Christensen NL, Bartuska AM, Brown JH, Carpenter S, D'Antonio C, et al. 1996. The report of the Ecological Society of America Committee on the Scientific Basis for Ecosystem Management. Ecol Appl 6(3), 665-691. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2269460

Cooper CF, 1983. Carbon storage in managed forests. Can J Forest Res 13, 155-166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/x83-022

Davis LS, Johanson KN, Bettinger P, Howard TE, 2001. Forest management to sustain ecological, economic and social values. McGraw-hill, New York, USA.

Diaz-Balteiro L, Romero C, 2003. Forest management optimization models when carbon captured is considered: a goal programming approach. Forest Ecol Manag. 174, 447-457. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(02)00075-0

Dijk AIJM, Keenan RJ, 2007. Planted forests and water in perspective. Forest Ecol Manag 251, 1-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2007.06.010

Ferguson IS, 1996. Sustainable forest management. Oxford: Oxford University Press. UK.

Hu H, Wang G, 2008. Changes in forest biomass carbon storage in the South Carolina Piedmont between 1936 and 2005. Forest Ecol Manag 255, 1400-1408. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2007.10.064

Huston M, Marland G, 2003. Carbon management and biodiversity. J Environ Manage 67(1), 77-86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0301-4797(02)00190-1

Jarvis PG, Ibrom A, Linder S, 2005. Carbon forestry-managing forests to conserve carbon. In: The carbon Balance of Forest Biomes (Griffits H, Jarvis PG, eds). Taylor and Francis Group, UK, 331-349.

Kaul M, Dadhwal VK, Mohren GMJ, 2009. Land use change and net C flux in Indian forests. Forest Ecol Manag 258, 100-108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2009.03.049

Krcmar E, Stennes B, van Kooten GC, Vertinsky I, 2001. Carbon sequestration and land management under uncertainty. Eur J Oper Res 135, 616-629. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0377-2217(00)00326-X

Krcmar E, van Kooten GC, Vertinsky I, 2005. Managing forest and marginal agricultural land for multible tradeoffs: Compromising on economic, carbon and structural diversity objectives. Ecol Model 185, 451-468. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2004.12.014

Kurz WA, Dymond CC, Stinson G, Rampley GJ, Neilson ET, et al. 2008. Mountain pine betle and forest carbon feed-back to climate change. Nature 452, 987-990. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature06777

Lindo 6.1 Lindo, The modeling language and optimizer. Lindo Systems Inc, Chicago, USA.

Liski J, Pussinen A, Pingoud K, Makipaa R, Karjalainen T, 2001. Which rotation length is favourable to carbon sequestration?. Can J Forest Res 31, 2004-2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/x01-140

Masera OR, Garza-Caligaris JF, Kanninen M, Karjalainen T, Liski J, et al. 2003. Modeling carbon sequestration in afforestation, agroforestry and forest management projects: the CO2FIX V2 approach. Ecol Model. 164, 177-199. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3800(02)00419-2

Mumcu D, 2007. Yalnızçam ormanlarinin ekosistem tabanli cok amacli planlanması ve orman dinamiginin ekonomik ve idare sureleri acisindan degerlendirilmesi. M.Sc. thesis, KTU Fen Bilimleri Enstitusu, Trabzon, Turkey.

Olschewskia R, Benitez PC, 2010. Optimizing joint production of timber and carbon sequestration of afforestation projects. J Forest Econ 16, 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfe.2009.03.002

Perez-Garcia J, Lippke B, Comnick J, Manriquez C, 2005. An assessment of carbon pools and storage and wood products market substitution using life-cycle analysis results. Wood Fiber Sci 37, 140-148.

Pukkala T, 2002. Measuring non-wood forest outputs in numerical forest planning. In: Multi-objective forest planning (Pukkala T, ed). The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-9906-1_8

Pussinen A, Karjalainen T, Makipaa R, Valsta L, Kellomaki S, 2002. Forest carbon sequestration and harvests in Scotspine stand under different climate and nitrogen deposition scenarios. Forest Ecol Manag 158, 103-115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(00)00675-7

Raymer AKP, Gobakken T, Hoen HF, Solberg B, 2005. Optimal forest management and cost-effectiveness when increasing the carbon benefit from a forest area: A case study of Hedmark county in Norway. In: Modelling and analyzing climate gas impacts of forest management (Raymer AKP, ed). Phd thesis, Norwegian University of Life Sciences.

Rolff C, Agren G, 1999. A model study of nitrogen limited forest growth. Ecol Model 118, 193-211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3800(99)00043-5

Sahin V, Hall MJ, 1996. The effects of afforestation and deforestation on water yields. J Hydrol 178, 293-309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(95)02825-0

Stednick JD, 1996. Monitoring the effects of timber harvest on annual water yield. J Hydrol 176, 79-95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(95)02780-7

Swanson M, 2009. Modelling the effects of alternative management strategies on carbon in the Nothofagus forests of Tierra del Fuego, Chile. Forest Ecol Manag 257, 1740-1750. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2009.01.045

Turker MF, 2000. Orman isletmeciligi ders notlari. Karadeniz Teknik Universitesi, Orman Fakültesi, Yayın No:59, Trabzon 226 pp.

UN-ECE/FAO, 2000. Global forest resources assessment 2000. Main report, Geneva Timber and Forest Study Papers, No: 17, United Nations, New York and Geneva.

Van Kooten GC, Binkley CS, and Delcourt G, 1995. Effect of carbon taxes and subsidies on optimal forest rotation age and supply of carbon services. Am J Agr Econ 77, 365-374. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1243546

Woodbury PB, Smith JE, Heath LS, 2007. Carbon sequestration in the US forest sector from 1990 to 2010. Forest Ecol Manag 241, 14-27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2006.12.008

How to Cite
Mumcu KüçükerD., & BaskentE. Z. (2015). Evaluation of Forest Dynamics Focusing on Various Minimum Harvesting Ages in Multi-Purpose Forest Management Planning. Forest Systems, 24(1), e005. https://doi.org/10.5424/fs/2015241-05607
Research Articles