Long-term development of nursing mixtures of Sitka spruce and larch species in an experiment in northern Scotland
Aim of the study: An experiment was established in 1966 to compare the growth and development of 50: 50 mixtures of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) with either Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi) or tamarack (L. laricina) with that found in pure plots of Sitka spruce. The site was one of moderate nitrogen availability where the presence of heather (Calluna vulgaris) could be expected to limit the growth ofSitka spruce.
Area of the study: North-east Scotland.
Material and methods: There were different patterns of spruce growth in the pure plots and in the mixtures, with faster spruce growth in mixture in the years approaching and immediately following canopy closure (i.e. ages 15-25). Foliage analysis suggested that this was linked with improved nitrogen status of spruce trees in the mixed compared to the pure plots.
Main results: At years 20 and 25 there were significant differences in height, diameter, and basal area between treatments, with the largest basal area being found in the Japanese larch/Sitka spruce mixtures, indicative of overyielding in the mixed plots. However, when the experiment was clearfelled at 41 years of age, all treatments had self-thinned to produce spruce dominated stands of similar height with only an occasional larch tree surviving in plots that were originally 50:50 mixtures.
Research highlights: There were no differences between treatments in basal area, harvested volume or sawlog outturn after 41 years. These results can be interpreted as showing facilitation between the larch and the spruce during the establishment phase followed by competition for light once canopy closure had occurred.
Keywords: Mixed stand dynamics; facilitation; nitrogen status; product outturn.
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