Interactions between canopy cover density and regeneration cores of older saplings in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands

  • Suleyman Coban Istanbul University, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Silviculture.
  • Alper H. Colak Istanbul University, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Silviculture.
  • Ian D. Rotherham Sheffield Hallam University, Geography, Tourism & Environment Research Unit.
Keywords: Gap regeneration, sapling growth, light regime, canopy cover density, irregular silviculture


Aim of study: This paper provides an analysis of growth and survival of twenty–year–old Scots pine saplings in relation to canopy cover density (CCD) gradients, from dense (D–CCD), sparse (S–CCD), and gap (G–CCD) situations.

Area of study: Aladag (Bolu) in northern Turkey.

Material and methods: Sparse canopy cover density (S–CCD), dense canopy cover density (D–CCD) and gap canopy (G–CCD) were chosen within ten different strip sample plots (10 × 50 m) with sapling regeneration cores. Those regeneration cores were divided into two portions (individuals at the edge and middle of the regeneration cores) and from each portion three individuals was were obtained from a sample. The growth relationships of individual saplings were calculated with stem analyses. Honowski Light Factor (HLF) (ratio of Terminal sprout length (T) to Lateral sprout length (L)) was used to present growth potential measure of seedlings.

Main results: The largest sapling regeneration cores were found in the G–CCD followed by S–CCD, and finally D–CCD, all tested for significance with Kruskal–Wallis Test. Compared with saplings in the middle of regeneration cores (crop saplings), those at the edge were always reduced in terms of mean height. Significant difference was only found between the ‘Main Crop’ and the ‘Edge 1’ of the regeneration cores for G–CCD suggesting that sapling regeneration cores are more typical under G–CCD conditions. HLF ratios were greater than 1 with high growth potentials for both CCD gradients (G–CCD and S–CCD) and there were no significant variations between G–CCD and S–CCD for main crop and edges. The thinning after 1214 years increased sapling growth. However, under D–CCD, growth had virtually ceased.

Research highlights: Naturally occurring Scots pine saplings are suppressed by a dense canopy. However, they are tolerant of shade to the extent that they can survive over relatively long time–periods (10–12 years) and can exploit subsequent opportunities should a canopy gap occur.

Keywords: Gap regeneration; sapling growth; light regime; canopy cover density; irregular silviculture.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Suleyman Coban, Istanbul University, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Silviculture.


Istanbul University, Faculty of Forestry, Dep. of Silviculture, TR-34473, Bahceköy-Istanbul, Turkey.


Alper H. Colak, Istanbul University, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Silviculture.

Istanbul University, Faculty of Forestry, Dep. of Silviculture, TR-34473, Bahceköy-Istanbul, Turkey.

Ian D. Rotherham, Sheffield Hallam University, Geography, Tourism & Environment Research Unit.

Hallam University, Geography, Tourism & Environment Research Unit, UK



Aksoy H, 1978. Untersuchungen über Waldgesellschaften und Ihre waldbauliche Eigenschaften im Versuchswald Büyükdüz bei Karabük. Istanbul Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Yayinlari 2332 (237), Istanbul. [In Turkish].

Andrzejczyk T, 2007. Response of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) young–growth stands to an overstorey canopy in the postoutbreak stands in Pila Forests. Sylwan 151(1): 20–29.

Ata C, 1995. Silvikültür Tekniği. Zonguldak Karaelmas Üniversitesi Yayinlari 4(3), Bartin. [In Turkish].

Atici E, 1998. Volume Table of Oriental Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) and the Comparison of Present Situation. J Poplar Fast Growing Forest Trees Res Inst 1(25): 23–48.

Atici E, 2003. Computer supported statistical analysis (GOVAN) of the increment and growth data of individual trees. Review Faculty Forestry, Istanbul University 53(2): 37–55. [In Turkish].

Atici E, Colak AH, Rotherham, D, 2008. Coarse Dead Wood Volume of Managed Oriental Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) Stands in Turkey. Invest Agraria: Sist Recursos Forestales 2008 17(3): 216–227.

Beckage B, Clark SJ, 2003. Seedling Survival and Growth of Three Forest Tree Species: The Role of Spatial Heterogeneity. Ecology 84(7): 1849–1861.[1849:SSAGOT]2.0.CO;2

Beckage B, Lavine M, Clark JS, 2005. Survival of tree seedlings across space and time: estimates from long–term count data. J Ecol 93: 1177–1184.

Cameron AD, Ives JD, 1997. Use of hemispherical photography techniques to determine the association between canopy openness and regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) in Ballochbuie native pinewood, north–east Scotland. Scottish Forestry. 51(3): 144–149.

Carter RE, Klinka K, 1992. Variation in shade tolerance of Douglas fir, western hemlock and western red cedar in coastal British Columbia. Forest Ecology and Management 55: 87–105.

Chantal M, Leinonen K, Kuuluvainen T, Cescatti A, 2003. Early response of Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies seedlings to an experimental canopy gap in a boreal spruce forest. Forest Ecol Manage 176(1–3): 321–336.

Claveau Y, Messier C, Comeau PG, Coates KD, 2002. Growth and crown morphological responses of boreal conifer seedlings and saplings with contrasting shade tolerance to a gradient of light and height. Can J Forest Res 32: 458–468.

Coates KD, 2000. Conifer seedling response to northern temperate forest gaps. Forest Ecol Manage 127: 249–269.

Coates KD, Burton PJ, 1999. Growth of planted tree seedlings in response to ambient light levels in northwestern interior cedar–hemlock forests of British Columbia. Can J Forest Res 29(9): 1374–1382.

Coban S, 2007. Research on the natural generation samples of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in Bolu–Aladag. Master Thesis, Istanbul University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Istanbul, Turkey. [In Turkish].

Colak AH, Calikoglu M, Rotherham ID, 2003. Combining Naturalness Concepts with Close–to–Nature Silviculture. Forstwissenschaftliches Centralblatt, 122: 421–431.

Colak AH, Rotherham ID, 2006. A review of the Forest Vegetation of Turkey: its status past and present and its future conservation. Royal Irish Academy, J Biol Environ 106(3): 343–355.

Davis PH, 1965–1988. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Edinburgh University Press. Edinburgh, UK.

Ellenberg H, 1996. Vegetation Mitteleuropas mit den Alpen in ökologischer, dynamischer und historischer Sicht, 5. Auflage, Stuttgart, Ulmer.

EUFORGEN 2009. Distribution map of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).

Ewald J, 2007. Ein pflanzensoziologisches Modell der Schattentoleranz von Baumarten in den Bayerischen Alpen A Phytosociological Model of Shade Tolerance of Tree Species in the Bavarian Alps. Forum geobotanicum 3:11–19.

Fabjanowski J, Jaworski A, Musiel W, 1974. The use of certain morphological features of the fir (Abies alba Mill.) and spruce (Picea abies Link.) in the evaluation of the light requirements and quality of their up–growth. Orig. Poln. Acta agraria et silvestris, Series silvestris (Warschau & Krakau). 14: 3–29.

Ganey JL, Block WM, 1994. A Comparison of Two Techniques for Measuring Canopy Cover. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 9(1): 21–23.

Genc M, 2004. Silvikültürün Temel Esaslari. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Yayinlari No: 44, SDÜ Basımevi, Isparta, Turkey. [In Turkish].

Globe, 2005. Canopy Cover and Ground Cover. Field Guide. Land Cover/Biology. Biometry Protocol 9(11): 1–3.

González–Martínez SC, Bravo F, 2001. Density and population structure of the natural regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the High Ebro Basin (Northern Spain). Ann For Sci 58: 277–288.

Jennings SB, Brown ND, Sheil D, 1999. Assessing forest canopies and understorey illumination: canopy cover, canopy cover. Forestry 72: 59–74.

Kalipsiz A, 1981. Statistical Methods. Istanbul University, publication number: 2837/294, Istanbul, Turkey. [In Turkish].

Kalipsiz A, 1999. Dendrometri, Istanbul Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Yayinlari, 3194/354, Istanbul, Turkey. [In Turkish].

Klumpp RH, Colak AH, Pitterle A, 2002. "Waldbauliches Glossar", in Waldbauliche Chancen und Probleme in Österreich, ed. J. Spörk und H. Vacik, eine CD für die forstliche Praxis und universitaere Lehre, Österreichischer Agrarverlag,Wien, Austria.

Kobe RK, Coates KD, 1997. Models of sapling mortality as a function of growth to characterize interspecific variation in shade tolerance of eight tree species of northwestern British Columbia. Can J Forest Res 27: 227–236.

Kobe RK, Pacala SW, Silander J.A., Canham CD, 1995. Juvenile tree survivorship as a component of shade tolerance. Ecol Appl 5: 517–532.

Korhonen L, Korhonen KT, Rautiainen M, Stenberg P, 2006. Estimation of forest canopy cover: a comparison of field measurement techniques. Silva Fennica 40(4): 577–588.

Kuuluvainen T, Juntunen P, 1998. Seedling establishment in relation to microhabitat variation in a windthrow gap in a boreal Pinus sylvestris forest. J Vegetation Sci 9(4): 551–562.

Kuuluvainen T, Hokkanen TJ, Järvinen E, Pukkala T, 1993. Factors related to seedling growth in a boreal Scots pine stand: a spatial analysis of a vegetation–soil system, Can J For Res 23: 2101–2109.

Kunstler G, Curt T, Bouchaud M, Lepart J, 2005. Growth, mortality, and morphological response of European beech and downy oak along a light gradient in sub–Mediterranean forest. Can J Forest Res 35: 1657–1668.

Löf M, Karlsson M, Sonesson K, Welander TN, Collet C, 2007. Growth and mortality in underplanted tree seedlings in response to variations in canopy cover of Norway spruce stands. Forestry 80(4): 371–383.

Mason WL, Edwards C, Hale SE, 2004. Survival and early seedling growth of conifers with different shade tolerance in a Sitka spruce spacing trial and relationship to understorey light climate. Silva Fennica 38(4): 357–370.

Montes F, Canellas I, 2007.The spatial relationships between post–crop remaining trees and the establishment of saplings in Pinus sylvestris stands in Spain. Appl Vegetation Sci 10: 151–160.[151:TSRBPR]2.0.CO;2

Odabasi T, Caliskan A, Bozkus HF, 2004. Silvikültür Tekniği. Istanbul Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi, I.Ü. Yayın no: 4459, Istanbul, Turkey. [In Turkish].

Oleksyn J, Reich PB, Zytkowiak R, Karolewski P, Tjoelker MG, 2002. Needle nutrients in geographically diverse Pinus sylvestris L. populations. Ann For Sci 59: 1–18.

Pamay B, 1962. Türkiye'de Sarıçam (Pinus sylvestris L.) ın tabi Gençleşmesi Imkanları Üzerine Araştırmalar, Orman Genel Müdürlüğü Yayınları No: 337/31, Istanbul, Turkey. [In Turkish].

Pukkala T, Kuuluvainen T, Stenberg P, 1993. Below–Canopy Distribution Of Photosynthetically Active Radiation and its Relation to Seedling Growth In A Boreal Pinus sylvestris Stand – A Simulation Approach. Scand J Forest Res 8(3): 313–325.

Ruuska J, Siipilehto J, Valkonen, S, 2008. Effect of edge stands on the development of young Pinus sylvestris stands in southern Finland. Scand J Forest Res 23(3): 214–226.

Sachs L, 1972. Statistical Methods (Statistiche Auswerttungsmethoden). Springer–Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

Schütz J–PH, 2001. Die Technik der Waldverjüngung von Wäldern mit Ablösung der Generationen. Skript zur Vorlesung Waldbau. ETH–Zentrum, Zürich, Switzerland.

Serin M, 1998. Climatical data for 21 years of Bolu–Serif Yuksel Research Forest Meteorological station. Batı Karadeniz Ormancılık Araştırma Enstitüsü Dergisi. Seri no 1.

Siipilethto J, 2006. Height Distributions of Scots Pine Sapling Stands Affected by Retained Tree and Edge Stand Competition. Silva Fennica 40(3): 473–486.

Stanners D, Bourdeau P, 1995. Europe's Environment–The Dobris Assessment Report. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Tegelmark DO, 1998. Site factors as multivariate predictors of the success of natural regeneration in Scots pine forests. Forest Ecol Manage 109: 231–239.

Tolunay D, 1997. Aladag'da (Bolu) Sıklık Cağındaki Sarıcam (Pinus sylvestris L.) Mescerelerinde Bakimlarin Madde Dolasimina Etkileri. Doktora Tezi, Istanbul, Turkey. [In Turkish].

Vaat T, Vildo M, 2005. Shelterwood cutting in Scots pine (P. sylvestris L.) stands. Transactions of the Faculty of Forestry, Estonian Agricultural University Issue, 38: 53–64.

Valkonen S, 2000. Effects of retained Scots pine trees on regeneration, growth, form and yield of forest stands. Invest. Agraria fuera serie 1:121–146.

Valkonen S, Ruuska J, Siipilethto J, 2002. Effect of retained trees on the development of young Scots pine stands in Southern Finland. Forest Ecol Manage 166: 227–243.

Wyckoff PH, Clark JS, 2002. The relationship between growth and mortality for seven co–occurring tree species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. J Ecol 90: 604–615.

How to Cite
CobanS., ColakA. H., & RotherhamI. D. (2016). Interactions between canopy cover density and regeneration cores of older saplings in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands. Forest Systems, 25(3), e073.
Research Articles