Forest Systems <p>FS aims to integrate multidisciplinary and multi-scale research in forest systems under diverse social and ecological background. Our policy is the publication of the open access scientific contents, specifically all topics as regards forest and agroforestry management and restoration; forest ecology and conservation; forest genetics; biotic and abiotic interactions in forests (including climate change); new technologies and remote sensing applied to forest; bioeconomy and forest policy; forest products; and wildfires and integrated fire management . FS team believes that free open access fees for authors contribute to democratize the publication and dissemintation of forest sciences for researchers and society.</p> <table style="width: 100%; border-spacing: 0px; border-collapse: collapse; margin-top: 20px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/check31.png"> Open Access</p> <p class="check"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/check31.png"> No Article Proccesing Charges</p> <p class="check"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/check31.png"> Indexed</p> <p class="check"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/check31.png"> Original Content</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/check31.png"> Peer Review</p> <p class="check"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/check31.png"> Ethical Code</p> <p class="check"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/check31.png"> Digital Identifiers</p> <p class="check"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/check31.png"> Digital Preservation</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/check31.png"> PDF, HTML, XML</p> <p class="check"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/check31.png"> Online First</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> INIA en-US Forest Systems 2171-9845 <p><strong>© INIA.</strong> Manuscripts published are the property of the Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.</p> <p><em>Forest Systems</em>&nbsp;is an Open Access Journal. All articles are distributed&nbsp;under the terms of the&nbsp;<strong>Creative Commons Attribution </strong><strong>4.0 International (CC BY&nbsp;4.0) License</strong>. You may read here the<a href="">&nbsp;</a><a href=""><strong>basic information</strong></a>&nbsp;and the legal text<strong>&nbsp;</strong>of the license. The indication of the license CC-by must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.</p> Effects of a megafire on the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community and parameters in the Brazilian Cerrado ecosystem <p><em>Aim of the study</em>: To evaluate the effects of a mega-fire on the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) community and parameters in soils under Cerrado vegetation.</p> <p><em>Study area: </em>Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, Goiás, Brazil. This site suffered the biggest fire in its history on October 10, 2017, with an affected area of 66,000 ha.</p> <p><em>Material and methods: </em>We analyzed AMF spore density, roots’ mycorrhizal colonization rate, easily extractable glomalin (EEG), as well as the AMF genera present. These parameters were evaluated in burned and unburned areas of five common phytophysiognomies of the region.</p> <p><em>Main results: </em>Fire presence immediately affected the mycorrhizal community parameters in Cerrado soils, which tended to increase afterwards. The presence of AMF genera did not differ between burned and unburned areas, with <em>Acaulospora</em>, <em>Claroideglomus</em>, <em>Diversispora</em>, <em>Glomus</em>, <em>Funneliformis</em>, <em>Sclerocystis</em>, and <em>Gigaspora</em> being present. The recovery of AMF community conditions in the Cerrado after fire events could also be observed in the mycorrhizal parameters evaluated, as the values of spore density, roots’ mycorrhizal colonization rate, and EEG were similar in the burned and unburned areas.</p> <p><em>Research highlights</em>: AMF diversity, and especially their community parameters, show great recovery after fire events, since they are crucial in processes like nutrient cycling and soil aggregation.</p> Jadson B. Moura Rodrigo F. Souza Wagner G. Vieira-Júnior Leidiane S. Lucas Jose M. Santos Sandro Dutra e Silva César Marín Copyright (c) 2022 Forest Systems 2022-01-27 2022-01-27 31 1 e001 e001 10.5424/fs/2022311-18557 Economic and environmental assessment of a multifunctional poplar plantation for roundwood and wood chip production in Spain <p><em>Aim of study:</em> To analyze the environmental and economic performance of a multifunctional poplar plantation (MPP), which was managed to produce timber for sawn wood and chips for bioenergy.</p> <p><em>Area of study: </em>The plantation was located in Southern Spain producing roundwood and woodchips (from tops and branches).</p> <p><em>Material and methods: </em>The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was chosen to perform the environmental impact assessment from a cradle-to-gate perspective. Capital goods, including machinery-manufacturing processes, were included. One oven dry tonne (odt) of forest biomass was chosen as functional unit. The economic analysis was performed using present costs and common indicators: net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR).</p> <p><em>Main results: </em>The harvest operations are the most environmental impacting subsystem and cultivation the costliest. Chipping was the process contributing the most to the environmental burden. The use of fertilizers, within the cultivation subsystem, had a notable impact on certain midpoint categories. In terms of climate change potential, 1 odt of delivered wood chips generated 64.1 kg CO<sub>2</sub>-eq. When considering the whole system (including the roundwood fraction), this value was 45.2 kg CO<sub>2</sub>-eq odt<sup>-1</sup>. MPP was hardly profitable with land rental and irrigation being the most expensive items. NPV, including harvesting and transport subsystems, was 1,582 € ha<sup>-1</sup>, while IRR reached 6.3%.</p> <p><em>Research highlights: </em>Our results allow to identify the costliest operations and those with the greatest impact to improve the system. Finally, these figures can be compared with other crop alternatives such us poplar short rotation coppice (SRC).</p> Rubén Laina Sara J. Herrero Blanca Corona Eduardo Tolosana M. Teresa de la Fuente Guillermo San Miguel Copyright (c) 2022 Forest Systems 2022-02-17 2022-02-17 31 1 e002 e002 10.5424/fs/2022311-18485 Tree species with potential for reforestation in coastal zones of the humid tropics <p><em>Aim of study</em>: The native species of warm humid climates <em>Ceiba pentandra, Tabebuia rosea, Gliricidia sepium, Enterolobium cyclocarpum</em> and <em>Brosimum alicastrum</em> are often included in Mexican reforestation programs. We evaluated the growth response in sandy soils of these species that could serve as pioneers in the restoration of coastal areas.</p> <p><em>Area of study:</em> Alluvial plain in Frontera, Tabasco, Mexico.</p> <p><em>Material and methods</em><strong>: </strong>A total of 1080 plants were planted in 2014 and evaluated for 23 months in 30 plots under a randomized block design with six replications. The sample plots each occupied 36 m<sup>2</sup> (each with 16 plants). Survival percentage, stem height (SH), basal diameter (BD) and basal area (BA) were quantified. Survival and growth variables were analyzed using logistic regression and ANOVA for repeated measures, respectively.</p> <p><em>Main results</em>: At the end of the experiment (2016), high survival was demonstrated in <em>G. sepium</em> (88 %) and in <em>C. pentandra</em> (86 %), while <em>B. alicastrum</em> presented total mortality at six months. The highest values of SH and BD were presented in <em>C. pentandra</em> (2.9 m and 7.8 cm, respectively) and in <em>G. sepium</em> (2.6 m and 4.2 cm, respectively). <em>Gliricidia sepium</em> differed significantly from <em>C. pentandra</em> in terms of BA (5.9 <em>vs</em>. 23 m<sup>2</sup> ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively).</p> <p><em>Research highlights:</em> The native species <em>C. pentandra</em> and <em>G. sepium</em> presented high survival and growth in the sandy soils; <em>G. sepium </em>showed strong adaptation to the environment and <em>C. pentandra</em> offered suitable coverage, characteristics that are necessary for the success of reforestation and restoration programs.</p> Georgina Vargas-Simón Marivel Domínguez-Domínguez Valentín Pando-Fernández Pablo Martínez-Zurimendi Copyright (c) 2022 Forest Systems 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 31 1 e003 e003 10.5424/fs/2022311-18291 A new approach to assessing competition from trees on Nelder wheels <p><em>Aim of the study</em>: To develop an index to describe the competition of trees of <em>Eucalyptus</em> spp. clones in different densities; also, to evaluate the productivity of the clones on Nelder wheels (NWs).</p> <p><em>Area of study:</em> Ten <em>Eucalyptus</em> spp. clones distributed in nine NWs, located in the northern state of Tocantins, Brazil.</p> <p><em>Material and methods: </em>A new competition index was formulated as the ratio of geometric areas and average cross-sectional areas of sampling units from different locations on the NW referenced to a unit taken in the center of it. Besides, two distance-dependent indices were tested to evaluate their performance in different spacings. The correlation between the competition indices and the variables height, diameter, volume and cross-sectional area, average distance and mortality percentage was evaluated. To check the difference in productivity between the clones we used MANOVA and discriminant analysis.</p> <p><em>Main results:</em> The Alba-Péllico index provides a better understanding of the competitive relationship between trees, as well as a better explanation of the competitive process in the NWs than the other indices evaluated. The variation in the basal area between the clones in the less dense locations, substantiates the characteristics of each clone or possible interferences of the location since in this condition they are free from the influence of spacing and competition. This shows that competition is more influential than other characteristics of sites and genotypes in the behavior in diameter, basal area and volume in the densest sites.</p> <p><em>Research highlights:</em> The characteristics of the Alba-Péllico index indicate good interpretation to understand the competitive relationship among trees since the results vary between 0 and 1, and the closer to zero the smaller or non-existence of competition.</p> Franciele Alba Sylvio Péllico Alexandre Behling Ataídes Marinheski-Filho Cláudio Cerqueira Copyright (c) 2022 Forest Systems 2022-03-09 2022-03-09 31 1 e004 e004 10.5424/fs/2022311-17913 The effect of stand characteristics on soil organic carbon content in spruce and deciduous stands <p><em>Aim of study</em>: To determine the effects of stand characteristics, which closely relate to forest management practices, on the soil organic carbon (SOC) content in the organic (O) and surface mineral (A) soil horizons in spruce and deciduous stands, and to show SOC dynamics during the life of production stands.</p> <p><em>Area of study</em>: Spruce and deciduous stands located throughout the Czech Republic.</p> <p><em>Material and methods</em>: The effects of age, density of stocking and canopy of stand on SOC content in the O and A horizons, and the difference between categories of variables and the trends of SOC were evaluated in spruce and deciduous stands (401 plots) at lower and middle elevations.</p> <p><em>Main results</em>: SOC content changed during the life of stands. In spruce stands, a decreasing trend of SOC with stand age was found in the A horizon. In deciduous stands, SOC content was higher overall in the A horizon, fluctuating slightly with stand age, but more balanced during the life of stands. Based on the results, in terms of management of dying spruce stands and carbon sequestration, felling should be carried out in the age group of 81-120 years in spruce stands, whereas in deciduous stands felling should take place in older stands (141 years and more). Density of stocking and canopy of stand had no substantial effect of SOC content.</p> <p><em>Research highlights</em>: Deciduous stands have the potential to replace dying spruce stands at lower elevation in terms of carbon sequestration.</p> Petra Hanakova-Becvarova Marian Horvath Borivoj Sarapatka Vaclav Zouhar Copyright (c) 2022 Forest Systems 2022-03-15 2022-03-15 31 1 e005 e005 10.5424/fs/2022311-18824 Short communication: Basic wood density and moisture content of 14 shrub species under two different site conditions in the Chilean Mediterranean shrubland <p><em>Aim of the study</em>: The aim of this study is to provide information on species-specific basic wood density (g cm<sup>-3</sup>) and moisture content (%) in Mediterranean shrublands.</p> <p><em>Area of study</em>: The study covers two sites of the sclerophyllous shrubland in central Chile, Cortaderal (34°35’S 71°29’W) and Miraflores (34°08’S 70°37’W), characterized by different climatic and topographic conditions.</p> <p><em>Material and methods</em>: The sampling area covers 4,000 m<sup>2</sup> over four plots at two sites. Shrub species were identified and size-related attributes such as height and crown size measured. A total of 322 shrubs were sampled at 0.3 m aboveground to determine basic wood density and moisture content. Species-specific differences and similarities were analyzed by multiple pairwise comparisons (post-hoc tests) and by ordination and hierarchical clustering.</p> <p><em>Main results</em>: We found high variation across species in wood density (0.46-0.77 g cm<sup>-3</sup>) and moisture content (41.6-113.1%), with many significant differences among species in wood density and among sites in moisture content. Because intraspecific variability could not be explained by shrub size and pronounced differences in wood density (0.49-0.64 g cm<sup>-3</sup>) also occurred between species of the same genus (<em>e</em>.<em>g</em>., <em>Baccharis linearis</em> and <em>Baccharis macraei</em>), our results suggested that phylogenetic affinity may be less important than adaptation to local conditions.</p> <p><em>Research highlights</em>: The values presented here were variable according to the type of species and environmental conditions, necessitating the determination of basic wood density (BWD) and moisture content at site – and species-specific level. The provided BWD estimates allow converting green volume to aboveground biomass in shrubland areas and are an essential source of information for estimating the carbon stocks.</p> Erico Kutchartt Jorge Gayoso Javier Guerra Francesco Pirotti Daniele Castagneri Tommaso Anfodillo Yasna Rojas Mark E. Olson Martin Zwanzig Copyright (c) 2022 Forest Systems 2022-02-07 2022-02-07 31 1 eSC01 eSC01 10.5424/fs/2022311-18160 Short communication: A study case on polycyclic plantations (PP) as innovative models for sustainable combined production of noble hardwood and biomass <p><em>Aim of study</em>: To verify the short rotation coppices (SRC) aboveground biomass production; to define the best planting intra-row spacing for walnut and poplar growth and wood production, with the last goal to assess the possibility of obtaining competitive yields in comparison to those produced by traditional monocultures.</p> <p><em>Area of study</em>: Po Valley, municipality of Meleti (Northern Italy).</p> <p><em>Material and methods</em>: A randomized block design with three replications was applied for the experimental design. The growth-monitoring activities started in 2009 and have continued for 5 years on the SRC, 10 years on poplar clone ˈI-214ˈ, whereas on common walnut they are still going on but only data concerning the twelfth year are reported in this work. The normality of distribution was evaluated for growth and yield data of species in the SRC model; all data were analysed with ANOVA; growth data were included in a linear mixed model analysis to evaluate the effect of age, spacing and their interaction, and the effect of SRC rows on growth and yield of poplar and walnut.</p> <p><em>Main results</em>: After 5 years of cultivation under SRC system, biomass yields obtained from the poplar clone ˈAF2ˈ were 39.9 Mg ha<sup>-1</sup>, from the elm 31.9 Mg ha<sup>-1</sup> and from the plane 14.8 Mg ha<sup>-1</sup>. After 10 years high timber production was obtained from poplar clone ˈI-214ˈ (average volume 98.2 m<sup>3</sup> ha<sup>-1</sup>). After 12 years, walnut trees reached a diameter at breast height (DBH) of 17.8±0.2, 18.9±0.2 and 18.7±0.3 cm, respectively, for planting distances of 6, 7 and 8 m, and showed diameter increments of 1.5-2.0 cm yr<sup>-1</sup>. With these growth rates, walnut can reach a merchantable dimension within 25-30-years.</p> <p><em>Research highlights</em>: Polycyclic wood plantations are a recent arboriculture model able to produce, on the same site, different assortments using various crop trees characterized by different growth rates and turnovers. This new type of mixed plantation is more environmentally sustainable compared to monoculture and allows diversification of production, obtaining continuous wood yields over the years (5, 10, 20, 30 years).</p> Manuela Plutino Sara Bergante Gianni Facciotto Angelo Vitone Elisa Bianchetto Dalila Sansone Maria-Chiara Manetti Pier-Mario Chiarabaglio Claudio Bidini Francesco Pelleri Copyright (c) 2022 Forest Systems 2022-03-07 2022-03-07 31 1 eSC02 eSC02 10.5424/fs/2022311-18200 Short communication: The mosquito yew wood: Survey and analysis of Mediterranean Taxus baccata L. woods (Habitat 9580*) <p><em>Aim of study</em>: To survey a yew tree grove and to evaluate its conservation status to ascertain whether its proposal to class it as Habitat 9580* is appropriate.</p> <p><em>Area of study</em>: Eastern end of Central Mountain Range, Spain.</p> <p><em>Material and methods:</em> We conducted a field survey collecting data of UTM coordinates, altitude, orientation, companion woody species, height, stem perimeter, sex and browsing evidence. Individuals were classified in four age groups, considering height and stem perimeter: 1) seedling, 2) juvenile, 3)<em>,</em> adult and 4) old. Companion species were analysed to assess the presence of habitat 9580* according to the Habitats Directive. Population structural complexity, stability and compactness were analysed to assess the conservation status.</p> <p><em>Main results</em>: We registered 8,304 yews along with seventeen distinctive accompanying species, thus confirming the presence of priority habitat of community interest 9580* "Mediterranean <em>Taxus baccata</em> woods”. Population analysis leads us to appreciate a favourable conservation status for the whole habitat in the study area.</p> <p><em>Research highlights</em>: We have described the largest <em>T. baccata </em>grove registered to date in the Central Mountain Range of the Iberian Peninsula. We confirm the presence of priority habitat of community interest 9580* "Mediterranean <em>Taxus baccata</em> woods", being the first description of this habitat in the Community of Madrid. As the study area is located within a Special Area of Conservation (SAC), we propose its inclusion on the SAC habitats list.</p> Rodrigo Balaguer-Romano Prudencio Fernández-González Antonio Alcaide Jaime Braschi Fernando Vasco-Encuentra Copyright (c) 2022 Forest Systems 2022-03-07 2022-03-07 31 1 eSC03 eSC03 10.5424/fs/2022311-18644 Editorial Board 31 (1) Vol 31 (1) Copyright (c) 2022 CSIC_INIA 2022-03-24 2022-03-24 31 1