Forest Systems <p><em>Forest Systems (FS)</em> aims to integrate multidisciplinary and multi-scale research in forest systems under diverse social and ecological background. Our policy is the publication of the open access scientific contents, specifically all topics as regards forest and agroforestry management and restoration; forest ecology and conservation; forest genetics; biotic and abiotic interactions in forests (including climate change); new technologies and remote sensing applied to forest; bioeconomy and forest policy; forest products; and wildfires and integrated fire management. <em>FS</em> team believes that free open access fees for authors contribute to democratize the publication and dissemintation of forest sciences for researchers and society.</p> <table style="width: 100%; border-spacing: 0px; border-collapse: collapse; margin-top: 20px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/check31.png"> Diamond Open Access</p> <p class="check"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/check31.png"> No Article Proccesing Charges</p> <p class="check"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/check31.png"> Indexed</p> <p class="check"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/check31.png"> Original Content</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/check31.png"> Peer Review</p> <p class="check"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/check31.png"> Reviewer Credits</p> <p class="check"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/check31.png"> Digital Identifiers</p> <p class="check"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/check31.png"> Digital Preservation</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/check31.png"> PDF, HTML, XML</p> <p class="check"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/check31.png"> Online First</p> <p class="check"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/check31.png"> Ethical Code</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) en-US Forest Systems 2171-9845 <p><strong>© CSIC</strong>. Manuscripts published are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.</p> <p><em>Forest Systems</em>&nbsp;is an Open Access Journal. All articles are distributed&nbsp;under the terms of the&nbsp;<strong>Creative Commons Attribution </strong><strong>4.0 International (CC BY&nbsp;4.0) License</strong>. You may read here the<a href="">&nbsp;</a><a href=""><strong>basic information</strong></a>&nbsp;and the legal text<strong>&nbsp;</strong>of the license. The indication of the license CC-by must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.</p> Chloroplast microsatellite diversity of Pinus brutia Ten. and Pinus halepensis Mill. populations across the Mediterranean basin: Inferences of their distributions <p><em>Aim of study:</em> To characterize and compare the genetic resources and gain some insights into the evolutionary history of Aleppo pine (<em>Pinus halepensis</em> Mill.) and Brutia pine (<em>Pinus brutia</em> Ten.) species which are both distributed across more than 8 million hectares of area in the Mediterranean Basin.</p> <p><em>Study area:</em> Fifty-six populations from eight Mediterranean basin countries where <em>P. halepensis</em> and <em>P. brutia</em> species are located.</p> <p><em>Materials and methods:</em> We analyzed 1344 seeds belonging to 56 populations using five cpSSR primers (Pt15169, Pt30204, Pt41093, Pt87268, and Pt110048).</p> <p><em>Main results:</em> The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that the genetic diversity among the Brutia pine populations was slightly higher than that of Aleppo pine (27.06% and 24.27%, respectively). The Aleppo pine populations separately displayed a clear east-west differentiation across the Mediterranean Basin, confirming previous results using other markers. Although the Brutia pine populations showed no spatial genetic pattern, geographically close populations and/or populations from their continual distribution range were genetically closer than the fragmented and/or ecologically marginal populations.</p> <p><em>Research highlights:</em> The seven Aleppo pine populations from the eastern range (Türkiye, Greece, and Italy) were more than two-fold diverse than the 13 populations from the western range (Spain and Morocco). The eastern range of Aleppo pine and Brutia pine populations had similar levels of genetic diversity parameters. These results suggested that the Eastern Mediterranean Basin is a possible genetic diversity center for the two pine species.</p> Yusuf KURT Burcu CENGEL Ercan VELIOGLU Santiago C. GONZALEZ-MARTINEZ Delphine GRIVET Nuray KAYA Copyright (c) 2023 CSIC_INIA 2023-06-08 2023-06-08 32 2 e008 e008 10.5424/fs/2023322-19729 Mathematical system based on taper functions for distribution by structural product of culms in three giant bamboo taxa <p><em>Aim of study:</em> To generate a mathematical system to distribute structural products of bamboo culms.</p> <p><em>Study area:</em> Northeastern region of the state of Puebla, Mexico.</p> <p><em>Materials and methods:</em> Eighty-seven culms of <em>Bambusa oldhamii </em>Munro, <em>Guadua aculeata </em>Rupr. and <em>Guadua angustifolia</em> Kunth were collected in Puebla, Mexico. Four taper functions were evaluated, the one with the best predictive capacity was fitted to model the diameter over and under wall together with a wall thickness model. The fitting strategy consisted of a system of additive equations using Weighted-Nonlinear Seemingly Unrelated Regression (WNSUR) procedure with autocorrelation correction, in combination with the Dummy Variable technique.</p> <p><em>Main results</em>: The Fang &amp; Bailey case 1-a model was selected to describe the diameter over and under wall; the Cao and Papper model was used to model the wall thickness. The R<sup>2</sup><sub>adj</sub> of the system fitted were 0.977, 0.944 and 0.918, and RMSE values 0.186 cm, 0.200 cm and 0.134 cm, for diameter over wall, diameter under wall, and wall thickness, respectively. <em>G. angustifolia</em> had the greatest taper and wall thickness, followed by <em>G. aculeata.</em> The highest proportion of primary product was presented by <em>G</em>. <em>angustifolia.</em> The system generated had parameters specific for each bamboo taxon.</p> <p><em>Research highlights:</em> The diameter profile of bamboo culms can be modeled by taper functions. A mathematical system for distribution by structural product type was developed consisting of: (1) a taper model for the diameter over wall and, (2) a function to estimate the commercial height.</p> Casimiro ORDÓÑEZ-PRADO Juan C. TAMARIT-URIAS Adan NAVA-NAVA Melchor RODRÍGUEZ-ACOSTA Martha E. FUENTES-LÓPEZ Copyright (c) 2023 CSIC_INIA 2023-06-12 2023-06-12 32 2 e010 e010 10.5424/fs/2023322-19641 Multidimensional analysis of the factors affecting the organizational and managerial structure of state forest management: Türkiye example <p><em>Aim of study:</em> To reveal the most important factors affecting the administrative and organizational structure in Türkiye's forestry and their effects with a multidimensional approach.</p> <p><em>Area of study: </em>Nine provinces of Türkiye (İstanbul, İzmir, Antalya, Adana, Bolu, Trabzon, Erzurum, Şanlıurfa, and Ankara), which represent nine geographic regions, where forestry activities are intensive.</p> <p><em>Material and methods:</em> Through the consideration of the literature review and expert opinions, 29 variables affecting the organizational and managerial structure were developed. These variables were grouped under six main headings, and questionnaire forms were prepared accordingly. They were applied to 463 technical and managerial staff in the forestry organizations with the face-to-face interview method. To evaluate the data, descriptive statistics, factor analysis, multiple regression analysis, and the Kruskal-Wallis H Test were used.</p> <p><em>Main results:</em> The most important factors affecting the organizational and managerial structure were found to be (i) working conditions and job satisfaction, (ii) educational level of employees, (iii) technical and managerial competence, and (iv) solidarity and institutional support. Approximately 67% of the managerial and organizational structure of Türkiye’s forestry was explained by these four factors. The differences in the views of the interviewees in terms of working conditions and job satisfaction, educational level, technical and managerial competence, and solidarity and institutional support factors were determined according to some task variables.</p> <p><em>Research highlights: </em>Enabling employees in managerial positions to have postgraduate education and to apply their knowledge and experience is effective in increasing job satisfaction, managerial competence, participation in managerial decisions, and thus sustainable forestry.</p> Murat KÖSE Ismet DAŞDEMIR Copyright (c) 2023 CSIC_INIA 2023-06-14 2023-06-14 32 2 e011 e011 10.5424/fs/2023322-19831 Damage to the wood of forest species caused by the debarking of Pallas´s squirrel introduced into Argentina <p><em>Aim of study</em>: Pallas´s squirrel (<em>Callosciurus erythraeus</em>) is a harmful and generalist invasive mammal species that causes different problems in the forestry sector. The aim of this study was to evaluate the damage on the wood in three commercial tree species in Argentina, <em>Eucalyptus dunnii</em>, <em>Populus deltoides </em>and <em>Pinus elliottii</em>, due to debarking caused by this squirrel species.</p> <p>A<em>rea of study</em>: ¨Liebres Fue¨ forest plantation, located in Luján District (Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina).</p> <p><em>Material and methods</em>: We analyzed affected tissues and internal defects of wood associated with debarking signs. We randomly collected 74 stems of the three forest species with (N=62) and without debarking (N=12) between October 2016 and December 2017. Transversal cuttings (N=37) and longitudinal cuttings (N=37) of the stems were analyzed.</p> <p><em>Main results</em>: The defects inside the wood related to the damage due to the debarking caused by Pallas´s squirrels are described. All the damaged samples presented affected wood tissues, with unfavorable healing forming ribbed cracks and ram`s horn scars and/or presence of some internal defect (crack, crack with abnormal coloration, crack with kino/resin or crack with bark included). None of the damaged pieces, according to the rules of visual classification of sawn woods, showed the highest quality grade (Premium).</p> <p><em>Research highlight: </em>Pallas´s squirrel action causes wounds on the trees, leading to different responses by the trees that are transferred internally, showing abnormalities in the wood which diminish its value from a commercial point of view.</p> Paula A. PEDREIRA Eduardo A. PENON A. Cecilia GOZZI Nicolás PENON-SOBERO Mariela BORGNIA Copyright (c) 2023 CSIC_INIA 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 32 2 e012 e012 10.5424/fs/2023322-20098 Small-scale variation in available water capacity of the soil influences height growth of single trees in Southern Germany <p><em>Aim of study:</em> Detecting possible small-scale soil effects on height growth of single trees in monospecific stands of three important tree species (<em>Abies alba, Fagus sylvatica, </em>and <em>Picea abies</em>).</p> <p><em>Area of study: </em>37 mature stands along an ecological gradient in Southern Germany from the cold and wet “optimal niche zone” to warmer and drier niche zones, including gravelly soils with poor water supply.</p> <p><em>Material and methods: </em>Measurement of achieved height and age of 15 to 20 sample trees per stand. Estimation of the available water capacity of the soil (AWC) in close proximity to sample trees based on soil texture following the German soil survey guidelines. Examining height growth depending on niche zone and AWC. &nbsp;</p> <p><em>Main results:</em> On sites (stand level) with the lowest water regime, height growth increased significantly with AWC of microsites. The estimated effect on height growth over the whole range of AWC values was almost 8 m at those sites. In contrast, the effect was negative on optimal sites. For intermediate and marginal sites, the effect was positive, albeit not significant for marginal sites.</p> <p><em>Research highlights: </em>To our knowledge this is the first study about small-scale effects of AWC on height growth of single trees in temperate European forests. Small-scale soil variability should be considered in future scientific studies and practical evaluation, involving single tree performance at stands with low water regime. This seems particularly important in genetic environmental associations studies and in the process of selecting trees for breeding purposes in such stands.</p> Karl H. MELLERT Gerhard SCHMIED Vincent BUNESS Mathias STECKEL Enno UHL Muhidin ŠEHO Hans PRETZSCH Copyright (c) 2023 CSIC_INIA 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 32 2 e013 e013 10.5424/fs/2023322-20197 SSR diversity and hybridization of wild apples (Malus spp.) growing in the Guadarrama and Ayllón mountain ranges (Central Spain) <p><em>Aim of study</em>: The crab apple tree (<em>Malus sylvestris</em> (L.) Mill.) is a wild crop relative of the apple tree (<em>M. domestica</em> Borkh.). Hybridization and genetic exchange between these species has been studied in some European regions, but there is no record in Spain. This work aimed to characterise a set of 330 feral and crab apples.</p> <p><em>Area of study</em>: Guadarrama and Ayllón mountain ranges (Central Spain).</p> <p><em>Material and methods</em>: We used 12 microsatellites to detect intermediate profiles. To do so, diversity, multivariate and population structure Bayesian analyses were performed on the sample, adding a total of 28 crab apples, feral and widespread apples varieties as references.</p> <p><em>Main results</em>: We found a large molecular diversity in this <em>Malus</em> germplasm, scoring a mean of 28.58 alleles per locus (A); an observed heterozygosity (H<sub>o</sub>) of 0.80 and a very low value of inbreeding coefficient (F<sub>is</sub> =0.06). On the other hand, we found from our Bayesian population analysis three populations (one per species and a third one very admixed) apparently not spatially correlated and a substantial level of intermediate genetic profiles, as around 47% of the feral trees and 35% of crab apples may be hybrids.</p> <p><em>Research highlights</em>: Connectivity in the crab apple genetic pool is still functional and interspecific gene flow may be relevant. Nevertheless, further conservation measures and research must be carried to understand the population dynamics between both species.</p> Alberto ARNAL Fernanda SIMÕES Javier TARDÍO Almudena LÁZARO Copyright (c) 2023 CSIC_INIA 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 32 2 e014 e014 10.5424/fs/2023322-19834 Monitoring the dynamic changes in vegetation cover and driving factors from 2000 to 2020 in the Maoershan Forest Farm region, China, using satellite remote sensing data <p><em>Aim of study</em>: Natural climate change is a central driver of global ecosystem and forest change. Climate change and topographical factors have had the greatest impact on different types of forests around the world. We used remote sensing technology to detect and analyze the temporal and spatial changes of forest vegetation to provide reference for regional management.</p> <p><em>Area of study</em>: Maoershan Forest Farm, China.</p> <p><em>Material and methods</em>: The Landsat images were preprocessed using ArcGIS and ENVI software. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was calculated to identify vegetation changes from 2000 to 2020. In addition, the vegetation fraction cover (VFC) was calculated using the pixel binary model. The driving factors and their influences on vegetation changes in this region were determined using the random forest algorithm and Pearson correlation analysis method.</p> <p><em>Main results</em>: From 2000 to 2020, the NDVI showed an overall increasing trend. The results indicated that compared with the climatic factors, topographic factors were more important to vegetation growth in the study area. Among the topographic factors, elevation was the most important factor affecting vegetation growth and both showed a negative correlation. Among the climatic factors, relative humidity was the primary driving factor affecting vegetation growth and both showed a positive correlation.</p> <p><em>Research highlights</em>: Accurate and timely assessment of vegetation change and its relationship to climate and topographical changes can provide very useful information for policy makers, governments and planners in formulating management policies.</p> Teng LI Yuanke GAO Copyright (c) 2023 CSIC_INIA 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 32 2 e015 e015 10.5424/fs/2023322-20348 Individual-tree growth system for even-aged Aleppo pine plantations in Aragón, Spain <p><em>Aim of study</em>: An individual-tree growth system was developed for Aleppo pine (<em>Pinus halepensis </em>Mill.) plantations.</p> <p><em>Area of study:</em> Aragón region (Northeast Spain).</p> <p><em>Material and methods: </em>Two datasets were used: Second and Third Spanish National Forest Inventories (104 plots with 1,678 trees), and <em>ad hoc</em> permanent plots (58 plots with 1720 trees, including 36 dead trees). Individual tree growth system was based on nine models. Different combinations of yield classes, initial stocking rates, thinning parameters, rotation periods, and age at first thinning were evaluated through the three most representative scenarios: timber production; soil conservation and biodiversity enhancement.</p> <p><em>Main results: </em>The nine models demonstrated a significant explanatory power for the data, with R2 values ranging from 0.71 to 0.99. These findings are consistent with previous research, indicating a strong goodness of fit. Additionally, yield tables were developed for the three prevalent silvicultural scenarios. To enhance usability, all models within the system were seamlessly integrated into a web-based application SIMANFOR.</p> <p><em>Research highlights:</em> To date, Aleppo pine forest managers in Aragon could only simulate silvicultural scenarios in natural stands. This study provides a new tool for plantations.</p> Francisco RODRÍGUEZ-PUERTA Rafael ALONSO PONCE Luz M. FERNÁNDEZ-TOIRÁN Iñigo LIZARRALDE Copyright (c) 2023 CSIC_INIA 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 32 2 eRC02 eRC02 10.5424/fs/2023322-20093 Pine root exploration of standing dead tree trunks: a short-cut biocycling process <p><em>Aim of study:</em> To characterize the colonization of <em>Pinus herrerae</em> roots in trunks of dead standing trees and to evaluate the composition of roots and decomposing tissues of standing dead trees.</p> <p><em>Area of study. </em>Jaguariaíva, Paraná state, Southern Brazil.</p> <p><em>Material and methods: </em>This study evaluated root attributes in the soil, litter, and trunks of dead standing trees and the composition of wood and bark of trees. Root traits (length, mass mycorrhizal colonization, and mean nutrient concentrations), soil and organic layers, and mean nutrient concentrations of wood and bark for were analyzed by non-parametric test.</p> <p><em>Main results: </em>Approximately 2 to 3.5 years after tree death, roots of adjacent trees in F and H horizon litter migrate into the wood/bark interface. Eight and a half years after tree death, roots of adjacent trees reached up to 3.3 m above the litter surface. At the wood/bark interface, a root mantle formed (length greater than 1 km m<sup>-2</sup>) with ~5% ectomycorrhizal colonization. Root presence in the wood/bark interface reduced P, K, and Fe concentration of dead wood and Zn concentration in bark.</p> <p><em>Research highlights: </em>Our results indicate that roots of <em>P.</em> <em>herrerae</em> are capable of colonizing dead tree trunks as a nutrient resource pool. This nutrient acquisition mechanism may function as a shortcut in the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients in forest systems.</p> Rangel CONSALTER Antonio C. V. MOTTA Julierme Z. BARBOSA Fabiane M. VEZZANI Rafael A. RUBILAR Stephen A. PRIOR Marcos V. M. BASSACO Copyright (c) 2023 CSIC_INIA 2023-05-30 2023-05-30 32 2 eSC01 eSC01 10.5424/fs/2023322-19715 First observation of Pleurodirus fairmairii damages on Cistus heterophylus subsp. carthaginensis, an Ibero-Balearic endangered endemism <p><em>Aim of study</em>: To survey and report the behavior of the weevil <em>Pleurodirus fairmairii </em>as a pest species on <em>Cistus heterophyllus</em> subsp. <em>carthaginensis</em> (Pau) M.B. Crespo &amp; Mateo (Cartagena’s rockrose), in order to provide the first biological data on this species. Cartagena’s rockrose is an Ibero-Balearic endemism considered as "endangered" in the Spanish Catalogue of Threatened Species. Its current distribution is limited to the Spanish provinces of Murcia, Valencia and the Balearic Islands.</p> <p>A<em>rea of study</em>: The study has been conducted in Valencia province (Spain).</p> <p><em>Material and methods</em>: <em>Pleurodirus fairmairii</em> was observed in the field feeding voraciously on Cartagena’s rockrose. Damages were described, and several individuals of the weevil were captured alive for preliminary observation of their feeding habits under laboratory conditions. The trials (no-choice test) consisted of offering a freshly plucked leaf from different potential host plants to the weevils introduced individually in a Petri dish. Furthermore, a male and a female were dissected for the study of genitalia, and their respective components were prepared for microscopy study and subsequently described.</p> <p><em>Main results</em>: This paper reports for the first time the occurrence of the weevil <em>Pleurodirus fairmairii</em> on plants of <em>C. heterophyllus</em> subsp. <em>carthaginensis</em> and describes the important damage it causes on leaves, stem, buds, flowers and fruits.</p> <p><em>Research highlights</em>: A short description of the adults is given, including the genitalia, that are shown and described for the first time.</p> Hugo MAS Antonio J. VELÁZQUEZ-DE-CASTRO Copyright (c) 2023 CSIC_INIA 2023-06-19 2023-06-19 32 2 eSC02 eSC02 10.5424/fs/2023322-20095 Guapirioid ectomycorrhiza: a novel fungus-plant subtype is described associated to Guapira opposita (Nyctaginaceae) in the Brazilian restinga <p><em>Aim of study:</em> Despite its recognized ecosystemic importance, knowledge about mycorrhizal associations in Brazil is still dearth, and the diversity of the native mycorrhizal fungi remains unknown. In this study, we characterized morpho-anatomically and molecularly the ectomycorrhizae found associated with <em>Guapira</em> <em>opposita</em> in the restinga, vegetation established on sandy soil.</p> <p><em>Area of study: </em>Coastal of the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil, Florianópolis: Parque Natural Municipal das Dunas da Lagoa da Conceição, Monumento Natural Municipal da Lagoa do Peri and Parque Natural Municipal da Lagoa do Jacaré das Dunas do Santinho.</p> <p><em>Material and methods:</em> The ectomycorrhizae found were morphotyped and described according to standard criteria. Plant and fungi were molecularly identified using sequences of the ITS region of rDNA.</p> <p><em>Main results:</em> Ten morphotypes were identified associated with <em>G. opposita</em>, including the native threatened species <em>Austroboletus</em> <em>festivus</em>. Members of the clade /tomentella-thelephora were the most representative in our study, with six taxa. Based on particular characteristics, such as short, and simple or long and thin branched ectomycorrhizal systems, close connections between the layered ectomycorrhizal mantle and the cortical root cells, absence of a Hartig net and other fungal elements in the cortex, we propose the name ‘Guapirioid ectomycorrhiza’ for this new morphology.</p> <p><em>Research highlights: </em>The results presented in this work confirm the presence of ectomycorrhizae in the restinga and suggest the existence of a diversity, above and below-ground, much greater than previously known. Furthermore, our data confirm the morphological and possibly ecological differences of tropical ectomycorrhizae from those known from temperate forests.</p> Ariadne N. M. FURTADO Marco LEONARDI Ornella COMANDINI Andrea C. RINALDI Maria Alice NEVES Copyright (c) 2023 CSIC_INIA 2023-06-12 2023-06-12 32 2 e009 e009 10.5424/fs/2023322-19998 Editorial Board 32 (2) Journal Editorial Office FS Copyright (c) 2023 CSIC_INIA 2023-07-27 2023-07-27 32 2