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Manuscripts published are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.</p> <p><em>Forest Systems</em>&nbsp;is an Open Access Journal. All articles are distributed&nbsp;under the terms of the&nbsp;<strong>Creative Commons Attribution </strong><strong>4.0 International (CC BY&nbsp;4.0) License</strong>. You may read here the<a href="">&nbsp;</a><a href=""><strong>basic information</strong></a>&nbsp;and the legal text<strong>&nbsp;</strong>of the license. The indication of the license CC-by must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.</p> (FS Editorial Office) (FS Editorial Office) Tue, 29 Nov 2022 15:50:21 +0000 OJS 60 Edible fungi for local and sustainable development in the Patagonian Andes forests of Argentina: A review <p>Wild fungi are one of the most characteristic and diverse non-wood forest products from native and planted forest environments and grasslands in the Patagonian Andes. Through the technological and scientific platform “Patagonia Fungi, trails and tastes®”, we work to promote mycotourism and mycogastronomy as sustainable identity and inclusive economic and educational activities that promote local development, taking advantage of the outstanding regional tourist profile. We also work on the development of functional foods and promote the cultivation of edible and medicinal fungi. The main objectives of this research were to define novel edible species and evaluate them for sustainable uses, including: environmental characterizations of their fruiting niches and ‘mycosilvicultural’ managements to increase their productivity; documentation and analysis of the ancestral uses and their processes of change; determination of the nutritional and nutraceutical profiles; studies of molecular genetic diversity of various genera; protocols for the domestication of wild species; evaluation and selection of lignocellulosic substrates for cultivation from available residues in Patagonian Andes; economic aspects related to the marketing and use in local gastronomy; evaluation of postharvest preservation techniques. Most relevant actions include the design and implementation of mycotourism trails, the promotion of an identity mycogastronomy; the inter-institutional management of protocols for sustainable harvesting and food safety practices; the incorporation of 21 new species in the Argentinean Food Code. We also work for food sovereignty through a spawn production laboratory fostering edible and medicinal fungi cultivation through courses and assistance to producers from family to productive scales.</p> Carolina Barroetaveña, María B. Pildain Copyright (c) 2022 CSIC_INIA Fri, 07 Oct 2022 07:13:28 +0000 Effectiveness of the obligation of keeping forest strips for native forest connectivity and conservation in the dry Chaco, Argentina <p><em>Aim of study</em>: The Chaco Region is one of the main deforestation hotspots in Latin America. Forest strips, <em>i.e.</em> native forest strips that surround cultivated areas, were established by the end of 1980’s as an attempt to mitigate the effects of wind erosion and as a way of conserving and interconnecting the remaining native forest patches. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of the scheme for the authorization of new agricultural land in the conservation of native forests.</p> <p><em>Area of study:</em> The most recent nuclei of agricultural expansion in the provinces of Chaco, Santiago del Estero, Salta and Formosa, Argentina.</p> <p><em>Materials and methods:</em> Landscape structure, forest connectivity and compliance with the obligation of leaving forest strips was assessed in satellite images for the years 1988 and 2015 within a Geographic Information System.</p> <p><em>Main results:</em> Forest strips differ from other forest patches in structure, presenting a greater perimeter/area ratio and smaller mean size. A great loss of landscape connectivity, lower than expected compliance of regulations and few forest strips with the minimum mandatory width were observed. Notable differences between provinces were found.</p> <p><em>Research highlights</em>: Forest strips would not be effective to conserve and interconnect the native forest patches. In light of new land clearings, other alternatives should be proposed in which the remaining forest persists as few large fragments with landscape and extra-landscape scale interconnection and minimizing the edge effect.</p> Marlene Kliger, Rubén G. Ginzburg Copyright (c) 2022 Forest Systems Fri, 07 Oct 2022 05:51:59 +0000 Conflicts and future scenarios of land use in eastern Mexico <p><em>Aim of study</em>: To develop an analytical framework for analyzing and assessing the land-use changes and conflicts, based on low requirements of information and useful in developing countries. Additionally, to generate future trend and alternative scenarios to estimate the likely impacts of each use.</p> <p><em>Area of study</em>: The analytical framework was tested in the Pixquiac sub-basin, Veracruz, Mexico.</p> <p><em>Material and methods</em>: We used satellite imagery for the characterization of the study area, map algebra to determine changes in use over time and conflicts with potential uses, as well as Markov chains and cellular automata for the generation of trend scenarios.</p> <p><em>Main results</em>: Our framework tested to be reliable. We detected a loss of forest cover of 653.12 ha from 2002 to 2018, and 5,299 ha of land use conflict. If the trend continues, an additional 279 ha of forest cover will be lost by 2042.</p> <p><em>Research highlights</em>: We proposed a framework to analyze the dynamic of land use change in small watersheds where the urban use is the driving for changes to other land uses. Our method allowed capturing the transition between land uses and conflicts with the potentialities of the territory. In addition, given that most of developing countries lacks high-resolution spatial information our method would be useful for other regions of the world with similar conditions. Finally, various trend and alternative scenarios to evaluate the impact of the policies applied to the territory on land-use changes were obtained.</p> Gabriel Chablé-Rodríguez, Manuel J. González-Guillén, Teresa M. González-Martínez, Armando Gómez-Guerrero, Demetrio S. Fernández-Reynoso Copyright (c) 2022 CSIC_INIA Mon, 24 Oct 2022 16:09:51 +0000 Litter decomposition in a remnant of Atlantic Rain Forest and bamboo dominance <p><em>Aim of study</em>: We compared the decomposition rate of the accumulated litter, the stock, and the return of nutrients to the soil, between an area dominated by bamboos in the understory and an area where this dominance does not occur.</p> <p><em>Area of study</em>: Fontes do Ipiranga State Park, an Urban Fragment of Atlantic Forest at the Municipality of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil.</p> <p><em>Materials and methods</em>: The decomposition rates were measured over one year (0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months), avoiding litter addition through nylon nets over the soil. The collected material was separated into the following fractions: bamboo leaves and branches (bamboo material); other leaves and branches (other material); very decomposed material not identifiable (unidentifiable). The content of macro (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S) and micronutrients (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) were determined.</p> <p><em>Main results</em>: The litter accumulated was significantly higher in the mature area than in the bamboo area. The decomposition rates did not differ significantly between the two areas. Except for K and Mn, the concentrations of macro and micronutrients were equal to or greater in the mature forest.</p> <p><em>Research highlights</em>: Unlike reported in other areas, there is no greater litter accumulation in the bamboo-dominated understory nor a slower decomposition rate. The nutrient content is lower in the bamboo-dominated disturbed area.</p> Meire S. Vieira, Andressa R. dos Santos, Marcia I. M. S. Lopes , Eduardo P. C. Gomes Copyright (c) 2022 Forest Systems Mon, 24 Oct 2022 16:51:11 +0000 Real options approach: Case study applied to a nursery to produce Eucalyptus forest seedlings in Brazil <p><em>Aim of study</em>: We checked if an infrastructure investment project for a nursery to produce <em>Eucalyptus</em> forest seedlings using the real options approach was economically viable, in order to verify the influence of the deferral, expansion and abandonment options on the investment project value, as well as their concatenation.</p> <p><em>Area of study</em>: Our study was based on technical-economic coefficients of a nursery infrastructure to be installed in the São Paulo’s state Midwest region, Brazil.</p> <p><strong><em>Material and methods</em></strong><strong>: </strong>The investment was assessed by addressing the uncertainties inherent in the investment project. We used the dynamic model for real option approach and, to determine the volatility of the project, we applied the Monte Carlo simulation method. As real options for the project, we employed deferral, expansion, and abandonment.</p> <p><em>Main results</em>: Using the traditional valuation methodology, we obtained a negative static net present value of USD 50,957. When incorporating the real options of the abandonment, deferral and expansion in the form of managerial flexibility to forest managers, we obtained the expanded net present value of USD 216,498, that is, 524.8% of valuation. <strong>The traditional method of investment evaluation undervalues the project</strong> in infrastructures to produce <em>Eucalyptus</em> forest seedlings nursery, and the increase in managerial flexibility, through the real options for deferral, expansion and abandonment, promotes value to forest managers and enables the feasibility of the project.</p> <p><em>Research highlights</em>: Infrastructure investment project for a nursery to produce <em>Eucalyptus</em> forest seedlings is not economically viable through the traditional economic evaluation techniques. However, by incorporating managerial flexibilities, through real options, the investment project was valued and it became economically viable.</p> Jorge C. Martins, Diego A. Camargo, Rafaele A. Munis, Danilo Simões Copyright (c) 2022 Forest Systems Wed, 02 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Application of Land Surface temperature from Landsat series to monitor and analyze forest ecosystems: A bibliometric analysis <p><em>Aim of study:</em> Land surface temperature (LST) is an essential variable to monitor and characterize forest ecosystems. This variable has been consistently captured for almost four decades by the Landsat program. The current study aimed at identifying trends, knowledge gaps and opportunity areas in the use of Landsat derived LST for the monitoring and analysis of forest ecosystems.</p> <p><em>Materials and methods:</em> A bibliometric analysis of scientific articles indexed in Scopus in the period 1995-2020 was conducted.</p> <p><em>Main results:</em> Annual increase rate in the number of publications on the topic analyzed was 22.58%. The journal with more publications on the topic was Proceedings of SPIE, followed by Remote Sensing. The authors with the highest productivity on this topic were C. Quintano, I. Vorovencii, O. E. Yakubailik and M. A. Zoran. Regarding productivity by country, 38 countries with publications on this topic were identified, with the highest productivity located in China, USA and India. This group of countries also represented the most solid network of cooperation between countries. Forest ecosystems more frequently analyzed were temperate forests, followed by tropical forests. The analysis of keywords highlighted topics such as remote sensing, NDVI, MODIS and evapotranspiration. The analysis of thematic evolution indicated that areas of research and interpretation of LST data has evolved in parallel with remote sensing areas.</p> <p><em>Research highlights: </em>Landsat LST analysis is an evolving topic with potential to contribute to improve ecosystem knowledge and to support diverse challenges in forest resources decision-making.</p> Marcela Rosas-Chavoya, Pablito M. López-Serrano, Daniel J. Vega-Nieva, Christian A. Wehenkel, José C. Hernández-Díaz Copyright (c) 2022 CSIC_INIA Fri, 04 Nov 2022 13:32:05 +0000 The recovery of logged forests proves that a viable management is possible in the Venezuelan Guayana Shield <p><em>Aim of study</em>: To compare the diversity and biomass of logged forests, with different ages after harvesting and the risk of their degradation to liana forests.</p> <p><em>Area of study</em>: We studied 18 plots at the central zone of the Imataca Forest Reserve (Guayana shield), Venezuela.</p> <p><em>Material and methods</em>: We used 1-ha plots, to measure individuals with dbh &gt; 10 cm in control plots (0 years) and in logged plots with 3, 9, 12, 15 and 18 years after logging. The main variables evaluated were enlarge importance index (EII), richness (R), Shannon-Weaner index (H´), Alpha Fischer (α), basal area for commercial species (BA_comm), above-ground carbon (C) and lianas abundance at the understory (Lianas_%Au).</p> <p><em>Main results</em>: Diversity variables (R: 62-77 spp ha<sup>-1</sup>, <em>p</em>: 0.117-0.838; H´: 2.8-3.4, <em>p</em>: 0.181-0.677; α: 18.6-25.4, <em>p</em>: 0.293-0.922) and biomass (89.6-180.2 MgC ha<sup>-1</sup>, <em>p</em>: 0.171-0.895) did not have significant differences between control and most of the logged plots. Only the 18 years-old forests had statistically higher values of diversity (R: 81-94 spp ha<sup>-1</sup>, <em>p</em>: 0.000; H´: 3.8-3.9, <em>p</em>: 0.000; α: 26.8-31.7, <em>p</em>: 0.000), perhaps due to a high impact skidding operation. Commercial species were not recovering after logging.</p> <p><em>Research highlights</em>: Forest management can be viable in this area, but it requires reduced impact logging techniques and better silvicultural systems to guarantee future harvest of high value commercial timber.</p> José R. Lozada, Yrma A. Carrero, Mariano Durán, Pilar Soriano Copyright (c) 2022 CSIC_INIA Fri, 11 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of heat treatment on hardness, density and color of Populus × canadensis ‘I-214’ wood <p><em>Aim of study:</em> To evaluate the effect of heat treatment (HT) on hardness, density and color of <em>Populus </em><strong>×</strong><em> canadensis </em>´I-214´ (poplar) wood.</p> <p><em>Area of study:</em> 15-years-old poplar wood from Pomona, Río Negro, Argentina.</p> <p><em>Material and methods:</em> 352 samples were exposed to different HT schedules: 120ºC, 160ºC, 180ºC and 200°C for 45 min, 90 min, 135 min and 180 min. Hardness, density and color were determined before and after each HT combination. Hardness and density tests were performed following the specifications of IRAM standards and wood color was determined according to CIE<em>Lab </em>system.</p> <p><em>Main results: </em>Hardness improved significantly at 160°C for 45 min and 90 min in comparison with control (14.34% and 9.08%, respectively) whereas this property was improved at 120°C in all cases without significant differences. The 200°C: 45 min schedule showed the worst performance with a 20.26% hardness loss. Density was lower than the control in all schedules with losses ranging from 2.50% to 10.00%. Color became darker (decrease in L value, increase in a and b values) as HT intensity increased (mainly temperature), with changes becoming evident at 180°C and 200°C.</p> <p><em>Research highlights:</em> HT on <em>P. </em><strong>×</strong><em> canadensis</em> ‘I-214’ improved its hardness under two HT schedules, although was not enough to extend the feasible applications, since it still belongs to a category of “soft” wood. Hardness and density did not show a clear correlation and color of poplar wood became darker as HT intensity increased.</p> Carla Taraborelli, Silvia Monteoliva, Gabriel Keil, Eleana Spavento Copyright (c) 2022 CSIC_INIA Fri, 11 Nov 2022 18:45:21 +0000 Forecasting production in thinned clonal stands of Tectona grandis in Eastern Amazonia <p><em>Aim of the study:</em> We investigated the most suitable thinning ages and intensities to maximize productivity and minimize the rotation age of <em>Tectona grandis</em> clonal plantations in the Brazilian Eastern Amazon.</p> <p><em>Area of study:</em> Capitão Poço, State of Pará, Eastern Amazonia, Brazil<strong>.</strong></p> <p><em>Materials and methods:</em> We used diameter, height, and volume data from 72 permanent plots measured on nine occasions. We determined the classification of forest sites using the generalized algebraic difference approach (GADA). Clutter’s segmented model was used to simulate different intensities of basal area reduction, determining the technical ages according to the projected increments.</p> <p><em>Main results:</em> The polymorphic site curves generated by the GADA method revealed that there were sites with different productive characteristics. The Clutter model produced compatible projections of basal area and volume that followed the behavior of the productivity classes. The final production was maximized when three thinning intensities (basal area reductions) were applied: 1<sup>st</sup> thinning (50%), between the ages of 3.5 to 4.2 years; 2<sup>nd</sup> thinning (50%), between the ages of 6.1 to 7.3 years; and 3<sup>rd</sup> thinning (25%), between the ages of 10.6 to 12.8 years. Projected rotation ages ranged from 13.9 to 16.6 years earlier than seminal plantings. The simulations increased the net volume by 8.3%, on average, compared to no thinning.</p> <p><em>Research highlights:</em> Simulations with three thinnings maximized production compared to the no thinning scenario. The time interval between thinnings was less than five years. The research results can help forest management decision-making and reveal production increases of <em>T. grandis </em>clonal stands in a shorter time.</p> Mario L. dos Santos, Eder P. Miguel, Cassio R. C. dos Santos, Hallefy J. de Souza, Walmer B. R. Martins, Michael D. R. Lima, Julio E. Arce, José N. M. Silva Copyright (c) 2022 CSIC_INIA Mon, 14 Nov 2022 11:24:02 +0000 Short communication: Edible wild mushrooms of the Northern Mediterranean area - Sectorial analysis and future perspectives <p><em>Aim of study</em>: Wild mushrooms are among the most widespread non-wood forest products in the Mediterranean region contributing to the rural economies. However, the wild mushroom sector still faces problems along its supply chain that can compromise its future in a scenario of increasing demand. The aim of this study was to analyse the current epigeous wild mushroom sector.</p> <p><em>Area of study: </em>Representative countries of the Mediterranean region: Spain, France, Italy, Croatia and Greece.</p> <p><em>Materials and methods</em>: The analysis was carried out through a structured Delphi survey conducted in two rounds, with a questionnaire divided into four groups: 1) supply chain description, 2) sectorial SWOT analysis, 3) future challenges and 4) sectorial resilience increase. The Delphi survey started with the selection of an expert panel that included 14 representatives of the wild mushroom supply chain such as forest owners, mushroom pickers, processing industry and consumers.</p> <p><em>Main results</em>: The results obtained from the expert panel confirmed the complexity of the wild mushroom supply chain with the following sectorial challenges: i) Traceability and sustainability is fundamental for the final consumer, ii) Sectorial administration should be more coordinated, iii) Mushroom picking should be regulated, as the grey market will decrease.</p> <p><em>Research highlights: </em>The study identified the most important actions that will strengthen the links among sectorial actors and interconnect gastronomy with mushrooms sector. The creation of a common EU list of commercial mushroom species and the development of a taxation system together with the product traceability were also addressed.</p> Anton Brenko, Enrico Vidale, Daniel Oliach, Olivia Marois, Nicola Andrighetto, Kalliopi Stara, Juan Martínez de Aragón, José A. Bonet Copyright (c) 2022 CSIC_INIA Mon, 26 Sep 2022 14:05:07 +0000 Short communication: Maritime pine natural regeneration in Coastal Central Portugal: Effects of the understory composition <p><em>Aim of study:</em> To study the natural dynamics of <em>Pinus pinaster</em> natural regeneration in a post-fire scenario in three populations of Coastal Central Portugal, with severe ecological degradation due to plant invasions, and partially affected by the 2017 wildfires.</p> <p><em>Area of study</em>: Three <em>P. pinaster</em> populations, located along a geographic gradient of about 140 km on Coastal Central Portugal: Mira, Tocha and Leira.</p> <p><em>Material and methods:</em> The density and establishment success of <em>P. pinaster</em> regeneration was studied in burnt and unburnt forest stands. Special focus was given to the effects of the cover by native and invasive species (mainly <em>Acacia longifolia</em>) on pine regeneration.</p> <p><em>Main results:</em> Regeneration values considered sustainable (over 0.3 seedlings·m<sup>-2</sup>) were recorded in all three populations in burnt and unburnt plots, where only one of the three study sites showed signs of establishment difficulty. We recorded high levels of invasion which showed a negative relationship with regeneration density.</p> <p><em>Research highlights</em><strong><em>:</em></strong> The cover of invasive flora was negatively correlated with pine regeneration, while the presence of native flora showed positive relations with density and height of pine natural regeneration.</p> Diana Rodrigues, Sofia Corticeiro, Paula Maia Copyright (c) 2022 CSIC_INIA Tue, 15 Nov 2022 17:50:00 +0000 Editorial Board 31 (3) Journal Editorial Office FS Copyright (c) 2022 CSIC_INIA Wed, 30 Nov 2022 07:42:52 +0000