Effect of tillage system on the structure of weed infestation of winter wheat
AbstractThe study aimed to evaluate the structure of weed infestation of winter wheat grown in different weeding systems: conventional tillage (CT), reduced tillage (RT), and herbicide treatment (HT). In CT system, shallow ploughing and pre-sow ploughing were conducted after the harvest of the previous crop. In RT system, shallow ploughing was replaced by cultivator tillage, whereas pre-sow ploughing by a tillage set. In HT system, shallow ploughing was replaced by spraying with glyphosate and pre-sow ploughing by cultivator tillage. At the tillering stage (22-23 in BBCH scale), species composition and number of weeds/m2 were determined with the botanical-gravimetric method, whereas at the stage of waxy maturity of wheat (82-83 BBCH) analyses were conducted for species composition as well as density, air-dry weight, and weed distribution in crop levels. The Shannon-Wiener’s diversity index (H’) and degrees of phytosociological constancy (S) of weeds were determined as well. The study showed that more weeds occurred in RT and HT systems than in the CT system and they produced higher biomass in RT than in CT and HT systems. The tillage system affected weed distribution in crop levels. In CT system, the highest weed density was identified in the ground and lower levels, whereas in RT and HT systems in the ground and middle levels. Values of the species diversity index (H’) indicate a similar diversity of weed species composition between weeding systems and more diverse between study years.
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