Private micro-irrigation costs using reclaimed water

  • J. Pujol Department of Chemical and Agricultural Engineering and Technology. University of Girona. C/ Maria Aurèlia Campany 61. 17071 Girona. Spain
  • M. Duran-Ros Department of Chemical and Agricultural Engineering and Technology. University of Girona. C/ Maria Aurèlia Campany 61. 17071 Girona. Spain
  • G. Arbat Department of Chemical and Agricultural Engineering and Technology. University of Girona. C/ Maria Aurèlia Campany 61. 17071 Girona. Spain
  • F. Ramirez de Cartagena Department of Chemical and Agricultural Engineering and Technology. University of Girona. C/ Maria Aurèlia Campany 61. 17071 Girona. Spain
  • J. Puig-Bargués Department of Chemical and Agricultural Engineering and Technology. University of Girona. C/ Maria Aurèlia Campany 61. 17071 Girona. Spain
Keywords: clogging, drip emitters, types of filter, water economics, water reuse

Abstract

The cost of reusing water in micro-irrigation at the field level has not been studied in depth although the use of effluents in agriculture is a viable alternative in areas where water is scarce or there is intense competition for its use. The aim of the present study is to analyse the private costs of water reuse in micro-irrigation in an experimental plot. This analysis is intended to provide information about the decision a farmer would make when the choice to use conventional or reclaimed water is guided by cost criteria. The components of the total costs of different combinations of four types of filters and five emitters that can be installed in micro-irrigation systems using reclaimed water have been studied with the data obtained from an experimental plot in conditions similar to those of fruit orchards. Different scenarios that compared the costs of using conventional or reclaimed water in terms of water price and nutrient content were also studied. The results show that a proper combination of filters and emitters can save up to 33% in irrigation costs. Capital costs and maintenance costs were the most variable among the different combinations. Scenario analysis showed that the greater price of reclaimed water could be compensated by high nutrient contents, which would reduce fertilizer costs.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

J. Pujol, Department of Chemical and Agricultural Engineering and Technology. University of Girona. C/ Maria Aurèlia Campany 61. 17071 Girona. Spain
Department of Chemical and Agricultural Engineering and Technology
M. Duran-Ros, Department of Chemical and Agricultural Engineering and Technology. University of Girona. C/ Maria Aurèlia Campany 61. 17071 Girona. Spain
Department of Chemical and Agricultural Engineering and Technology
G. Arbat, Department of Chemical and Agricultural Engineering and Technology. University of Girona. C/ Maria Aurèlia Campany 61. 17071 Girona. Spain
Department of Chemical and Agricultural Engineering and Technology
F. Ramirez de Cartagena, Department of Chemical and Agricultural Engineering and Technology. University of Girona. C/ Maria Aurèlia Campany 61. 17071 Girona. Spain
Department of Chemical and Agricultural Engineering and Technology
J. Puig-Bargués, Department of Chemical and Agricultural Engineering and Technology. University of Girona. C/ Maria Aurèlia Campany 61. 17071 Girona. Spain
Department of Chemical and Agricultural Engineering and Technology

References

BOE, 2007. Real Decreto 1620/2007, de 7 de diciembre, por el que se establece el régimen jurídico de la reutilización de las aguas depuradas. Boletín Oficial del Estado No. 294/2007, 50639-50661. [In Spanish].

Borràs G., Soler M., Sala L., 2007. Summary of data concerning the quality of the reclaimed water produced at the Blanes Reclamation Plant (Costa Brava, Girona, Catalonia). 6th IWA Conference on Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse for Sustainability, Antwerp (Belgium), October 9-12, pp. 1-8.

Bucks D.A., Nakayama F.S., Gilbert R.G., 1979. Trickle irrigation water quality and preventive maintenance. Agr Water Manage 2(2), 149-162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-3774(79)90028-3

Capra A., Scicolone B., 2007. Recycling of poor quality urban wastewater by drip irrigation. J Clean Prod 15(16), 1529-1534. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2006.07.032

Cararo D.C., Botrel T.A., Hills D.J., Leverenz H.L., 2006. Analysis of clogging in drip emitters during wastewater irrigation. Appl Eng Agric 22(2), 251-257. http://dx.doi.org/10.13031/2013.20286

CCB, 2010. Dades de les estacions de sanejament del Consorci de la Costa Brava. Available online in http://www.ccbgi.org/sanejament.php [25 October 2010]. [In Catalan].

DAR, 2010a. Superfícies, rendiments i produccions dels conreus agrícoles. Any 2009. Available online in http://www20.gencat.cat/docs/DAR/DE_Departament/DE02_Estadistiques_observatoris/02_Estructura_i_produccio/02_Estadistiques_agricoles/01_Llencols_Definitius/Fitxers_Estatics/Llencols_2009.pdf [25 October 2010]. [In Catalan].

DAR, 2010b. Preu de l'aigua del Sistema Segarra-Garrigues. Available online in http://www20.gencat.cat/portal/site/DAR/menuitem.7d5a409fbe273a69cc497c10d8c0e1a0/?vgnextoid=9b084f8bec1d7210VgnVCM1000008d0c1e0aRCRD&vgnextchannel=9b084f8bec1d7210VgnVCM1000008d0c1e0aRCRD&vgnextfmt=detall&contentid=7fbba31ff4928210VgnVCM1000008d0c1e0aRCRD [25 October 2010]. [In Catalan].

Elbana M., Puig-Bargués J., Pujol J., Ramírez De Cartagena F., 2010. Preliminary planning for reclaimed water reuse for agricultural irrigation in the province of Girona, Catalonia (Spain). Desalin Water Treat 22, 47–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2010.1523

Liu H., Huang G., 2009. Laboratory experiment on drip emitter clogging with fresh water and treated sewage effluent. Agr Water Manage 96(5), 745-756. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2008.10.014

Molinos-Senante M., Herández-Sancho F., Sala-Garrido R., 2010. Economic feasibility study for wastewater treatment: A cost-benefit analysis. Sci Total Environ 408, 4396-4402. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.07.014

Puig-Bargués J., Arbat G., Barragán J., Ramírez De Cartagena F., 2005. Hydraulic performance of drip irrigation subunits using WWTP effluents. Agr Water Manage 77(1-3), 249-262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2004.09.032

PUJOL J., 2002. Un análisis multicriterio del impacto del nuevo marco normativo del agua en los regadíos de la zona regable del Bajo Ter y del Muga (Girona). Doctoral thesis. Universidad de Córdoba. [In Spanish].

Pujol J., Berbel J., Ramírez-De-Cartagena F., Viaggi D., Raggi M., 2006. Evaluation of markets for irrigation water in the internal river basins of Catalonia, Spain. Span J Agric Res 4(1), 3-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2006041-173

Ravina I., Paz E., Sofer Z., Marcu A., Schischa A., Sagi G., Yechialy Z., Lev Y., 1997. Control of clogging in drip irrigation with stored treated municipal sewage effluent. Agr Water Manage 33(2-3), 127-137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3774(96)01286-3

SALA L., 2010. Propostes i idees a l'entorn del model de gestió de l'aigua regenerada en els municipis de la Costa Brava. Jornada sobre el subministrament d'aigua regenerada en l'àmbit urbà. Girona, 25 de febrero. Available online in http://www.ccbgi.org/docs/jornada_xarxes_aigua_regenerada_2010/04_lluis_sala_consorci_costa_brava.pdf [26 October 2010]. [In Catalan].

Seguí L., Alfranca O., 2004. La regeneración y reutilización de las aguas residuales. Una fuente alternativa de suministro dentro de una gestión integral del agua. IV Congreso Ibérico sobre Gestión y Planificación del Agua, Tortosa (Spain), December, 1-10. [In Spanish].

Seguí L., Alfranca O., García J., 2009. Techno-economical evaluation of water reuse for wetland restoration: a case study in a natural park in Catalonia, Northeastern Spain. Desalination 246, 179-189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2008.03.051

Tajrishy M.A., Hills D.J., Tchobanoglous G., 1994. Pretreatment of secondary effluent for drip irrigation. J Irrig Drain E-ASCE 120(4), 716-731. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9437(1994)120:4(716)

Trooien T.P., Hills D.J., 2007. Application of biological effluent. In: Microirrigation for crop production. Design, operation, and management (Lamm F.R., Ayars J.E., Nakayama F.S., eds.). Elsevier, Amsterdam. pp. 329-356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-4137(07)80012-6

Published
2011-11-28
How to Cite
PujolJ., Duran-RosM., ArbatG., Ramirez de CartagenaF., & Puig-BarguésJ. (2011). Private micro-irrigation costs using reclaimed water. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 9(4), 1120-1129. https://doi.org/10.5424/sjar/20110904-484-10
Section
Agricultural economics