Effect of amaranth residues (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) on weed control and yield or radish, onion and carrot

  • O. Tejeda-Sartorius Colegio de Posgraduados. Campus San Luis Potosi. Salinas de Santiago
  • H. Vaquera-Huerta Colegio de Posgraduados. Programa de Estadística. Campus Montecillo. Montecillo. Texcoco
  • J. Cadena-Iñiguez Colegio de Posgraduados. Campus San Luis Potosi. Salinas de Santiago
Keywords: allelopathy, inhibitory effect, mulch, vegetable


Studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of dry residue of amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. var. Azteca) stem on weed growth and yield of radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. Champion), onion (Allium cepa L. var. Cambray), and carrot (Daucus carota L. var. Nantes), in order to determine the inhibitory effect of amaranth. The treatments were established under field conditions: 1) aqueous extract (AE); 2) soil-incorporated residue (S-IR); 3) surface-applied residue (S-AR); 4) unaltered soil control (U-S/C); 5) soil-incorporated control (S-I/C). The soil type at the study site was loamy-sand, with bulk density 1.47 m–3, containing 2.1% organic matter. The species with the largest number of plants and highest dry weight in the three vegetables were Simsia amplexicaulis (Cav.) Pers., and a group of Gramineae grasses. Weed reduction was observed with treatments S-AR and S-IR related to the respective controls (U-S/C and S-I/C). Generally, decrease in plant number and dry weight in both treatments varied from 60% to 97% during the vegetable cycle. Radish yield decreased significantly with S-AR and S-IR; whereas that of onion and carrot increased significantly with S-AR. The results indicate that amaranth residue, incorporated or surface applied may control some weeds in radish, onion, and carrot. The surface-applied residue has potential to increase the yield of onion and carrot. However, it is necessary to find optimal residue management conditions for its application in the field to avoid reduction in yield of sensitive crops like radish, and/or when the residue is incorporated.


Download data is not yet available.


Becerra R., 2000. El amaranto: nuevas tecnologías para un antiguo cultivo. CONABIO. Biodiversitas 30, 1-6. [In Spanish].

Bhowmik P.C., Doll J.D., 1982. Corn and soybean response to allelopathic effects of weed and crop residues. Agron J 74, 601-606. http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/agronj1982.00021962007400040005x

Bhowmik P.C., Doll J.D., 1983. Growth analysis of corn and soybean response to allelopathic effects of weed residues at various temperatures and photosynthetic photon flux densities. J Chem Ecol 9(8), 1263-1280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00982228

Borneo R., Aguirre A., 2008. Chemical composition, cooking quality, and consumer acceptance of pasta made with dried amaranth leaves flour. Food Sci Technol 41, 1748-1751.

Bradow J.M., Connick W.J., 1987. Allelochemicals from palmer amaranth, Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats. J Chem Ecol 131, 185-202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01020362

Connick W.J., Bradow J.M., Legendre M.G., 1989. Identification and bioactivity of volatile allelochemicals from amaranth residues. J Agric Food Chem 37, 792-796. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf00087a049

Duke S.O., Dayan F.E., Rimando A.M., Schrader K.K., Aliotta G., Oliva A., Romagni J.G., 2002. Chemicals from nature for weed management. Weed Sci 50, 138-151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1614/0043-1745(2002)050[0138:IPCFNF]2.0.CO;2

Erenstein O., 2003. Smallholder conservation farming in the tropics and sub-tropics: a guide to the development and dissemination of mulching with crop residues and cover crops. Agr Ecosyst Environ 100, 17-37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(03)00150-6

Foy C.L., Inderjit, 2001. Understanding the role of allelopathy in weed interference and declining plant diversity. Weed Technol 15, 873-878. http://dx.doi.org/10.1614/0890-037X(2001)015[0873:UTROAI]2.0.CO;2

Gélinas B., Seguin P., 2008. Evaluation of management practices for grain amaranth production in Eastern Canada. Agron J 100, 344-351. http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/agrojnl2007.0189

Guzzella L., Pozzoni F., Giuliano G., 2006. Herbicide contamination of surficial groundwater in Northern Italy. Environ Pollut 142, 344-353. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2005.10.037 PMid:16413952

Harper J.L., 1977. The seed bank. In: Population of biology plants. Academic Press Inc, NY, USA. pp. 83-110.

Henderson T.L., Johnson B.L., Schneiter A.A., 2000. Row spacing, plant population, and cultivar effects on grain amaranth in the Northern Great Plains. Agron J 92, 329-336.

INDERJIT, 2001. Soil: environmental effects on allelochemical activity. Agron J 93, 79-84.

INDERJIT, 2002. Allelopathic effect of Pluchea lanceolata on growth and yield components of mustard (Brassica juncea) and its influence on selected soil properties. Weed Biol Manage 2, 200-204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1445-6664.2002.00069.x

Isik D., Kaya E., Ngouajio M., Mennan H., 2009. Weed suppression in organic pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) with winter cover crops. Crop Protect 28, 356-363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2008.12.002

Kruidhof H.M., Bastiaans L., Kropf M.J., 2009. Cover crop residue management for optimizing weed control. Plant Soil 318, 169-184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11104-008-9827-6

Lu Y.C., Bradley K., Teasdale J.R., Abdul-Baki A.A., 2000. Cover crops in sustainable food production. Food Rev Int 16(2), 121-157. http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/FRI-100100285

Menges R.M., 1987. Allelopathic effects of palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) and other plant residues in soil. Weed Sci 35, 339-347.

Mostacedo B., Fredericksen T.S., 2000. Manual de métodos básicos de muestreo y análisis en ecología vegetal. BOLFOR, Santa Cruz, Bolivia. 87 pp. [In Spanish].

Ngouajio M., Mennan H., 2005. Weed populations and pickling cucumber (Cucumis sativus) yield under summer and winter cover crop systems. Crop Protect 24, 521-526. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2004.10.004

Ngouajio M., Mcgiffen M.E. Jr., Hutchinson C.M., 2003. Effect of cover crop and management system on weed populations in lettuce. Crop Protect 22, 57-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0261-2194(02)00111-4

O'Brien G.K., Price M.L., 1983. Amaranth. Grain & vegetable types. Echo Technical Note. North Fort Myers, FL, USA. pp. 1-14.

Pedersen B., Kalinowski L.S., Eggum B.O., 1987. The nutritive value of amaranth grain (Amaranthus caudatus). 1. Protein and minerals of raw and processed grain. Plant Food Hum Nutr 36(4), 309-324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01892352

Petr J., Michalik I., Tlaskalova H., Capouchova I., Famera O., Urminska D., Tukova L., Knoblochova H., 2003. Extension of the spectra of plant products for the diet in celiac disease. Czech J Food Sci 21, 59-70.

Rice L.E., 1984. Allelopathy, 2nd ed. Academic Press, NY. 353 pp.

Sanyal D., Bhowmik P.C., Anderson R.L., Shrestha A., 2008. Revisiting the perspective and progress of integrated weed management. Weed Sci 56, 161-167. http://dx.doi.org/10.1614/WS-07-108.1

SAS, 2006. SAS enterprise guide 4. SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC, USA.

SAS, 2002. SAS STAT for SAS 9.1. SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC, USA.

Soil Survey Staff, 2006. Claves para la taxonomía de suelos. Departamento de Agricultura de los Estados Unidos, Servicio de Conservación de Recursos Naturales. 331 pp. [Translated by C.A. Ortiz-Solorio and M.C. Gutiérrez-Castorena, 2007].

Teasdale J.R., Mohler C.L., 2000. The quantitative relationship between weed emergence and the physical properties of mulches. Weed Sci 48, 385-392. http://dx.doi.org/10.1614/0043-1745(2000)048[0385:TQRBWE]2.0.CO;2

Tejeda-Sartorius O., Rodríguez-González M.T., 2008. Weed and vegetable germination and growth inhibitors in amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) residues. Agrociencia 42, 415-423.

Tejeda-Sartorius O., Escalante-Estrada J.A., Soto-Hernández M., Rodríguez-González M.T., Vibrans H., Ramírez-Guzmán M.E., 2004. Inhibidores de la germinación en el residuo seco del tallo del amaranto (Amaranthus hypochondriacus). Rev Soc Quim Mex 48, 118-123. [In Spanish].

Tucker J.B., 1986. Amaranth: the once and future crop. BioScience 36(1), 9-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1309789

Weston L.A. 1996. Utilization of allelopathy for weed management in agroecosystems. Agron J 88, 860-866. http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/agronj1996.00021962003600060004x

Wuest S., Skirvin K., 1999. Crop residue and plant health: research overview and implications for no-till. Columbia Basin Agricultural Research Annual Report. Spec Rpt 999, Oregon St Univ, Pendleton, OR, USA. pp. 81-84.

Zimdahl R.L., 1993. Fundamentals of weed science. Academia Press, Inc, NY, USA. pp. 59-157.

How to Cite
Tejeda-SartoriusO., Vaquera-HuertaH., & Cadena-IñiguezJ. (1). Effect of amaranth residues (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) on weed control and yield or radish, onion and carrot. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 9(1), 284-295. https://doi.org/10.5424/sjar/20110901-040-10
Plant protection