Short Communication: Laboratory assessment of ammonia volatilization from pig slurries applied on intact soil cores from till and no-till plots
Aim of study: Agricultural activities are the main source of volatilized ammonia (NH3). Maximum rates are reached within a few hours after slurry application. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of soil texture, tillage and slurry dry matter (DM) on NH3 volatilization.
Area of study: Mediterranean semiarid environments (NE Spain).
Material and methods: Ammonia volatilization from pig slurry directly applied on the soil surface was quantified in the laboratory, in soil samples from two experimental sites with different soil textures: silty loam and sandy loam. Field treatments consisted of two tillage management practices: till by disc-harrowing or no-till. At topdressing (cereal tillering), tillage treatments were combined with slurries of different DM contents applied onto the silty loam soil. Measurements were done for two cereal cropping seasons and during the period of maximum NH3 flux (12 h after slurry application). A photoacoustic analyzer was used.
Main results: Slurry spreading at sowing resulted in low volatilization (0.7-9% of NH4+-N applied) as it also did at topdressing (0.3-1.4% of NH4+-N applied). At sowing, ammonia volatilization from high DM slurry (>7.5%) was significantly enhanced by no-till in both soils. At topdressing, this result was also found in records on silty loam soil. No differences were found between tillage systems when slurry of low DM content was applied, whatever the soil texture and application moment. Although NH3 volatilization was probably affected by the laboratory conditions, the comparisons between treatments were still valuable.Research highlights: Ammonia volatilization abatement can be improved (<1 kg NH3-N ha-1) if fertilization is done after crop establishment using low DM slurries (<3.5%).
Bacon PE, Hoult EH, Lewin LG, McGarity JW, 1988. Ammonia volatilization from drill sown rice bays. Fert Res 16: 257-272. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01051375
Bhandral R, Bittman S, Kwalenko G, Buckley K, Chantigny MH, Hunt DE, Bounaix F, Friensen A, 2009. Enhancing soil infiltration reduces gaseous emissions and improves N uptake from applied dairy slurry. J Environ Qual 38: 1372-1382. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2008.0287
Bittman S, Van Vliet LJP, Kowalenko CG, McGinn S, Hunt DE, Bounaix F, 2005. Surface-banding liquid manure over aeration slots: A new low-disturbance method for reducing ammonia emissions and improving yield of perennial grasses. Agron J 97: 1304-1313. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj2004.0277
Bosch-Serra AD, Yagüe MR, Teira-Esmatges MR, 2014. Ammonia emissions from different fertilizing strategies in Mediterranean rainfed winter cereals. Atmos Enviro 84: 204-212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.11.044
Cameron KC, Di HJ, Moir JL, 2013. Nitrogen losses from the soil/plant system: a review. Ann Appl Biol 162: 145-173. https://doi.org/10.1111/aab.12014
DOGC, 2019. Decree 153/2019 of management of soil fertilization and livestock manure and approval of the program of action in vulnerable areas in relation to pollution by nitrates from agricultural sources. Diari Oficial de la Generalitat de Catalunya (Catalonia, Spain) No. 7911, 03/07/19.
EU, 2016. Directive 2016/2284 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 December 2016 on the reduction of national emissions of certain atmospheric pollutants, amending Directive 2003/35/ EC and repealing Directive 2001/81/EC. 17 December 2016. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/ES/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52019XC0301(01)&qid=1591611542120&from=EN
Iqbal M, Khan AG, Hassan A, Islam KR, 2013. Tillage and nitrogen fertilization impact on irrigated corn yields, and soil chemical and physical properties under semi-arid climate. J Sustain Watershed Sci Manage 1: 90-98. https://doi.org/10.5147/jswsm.2013.0125
Lam SK, Suter H, Bai M, Walker C, Mosier AR, Grinsven H, Chen G, 2019. Decreasing ammonia loss from an Australian pasture with the use of enhanced efficiency fertilizers. Agric Ecosyst Environ 283: 10-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2019.05.012
MAGRAMA, 2017. Anuario de estadística. Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación, Gobierno de España. https://www.mapa.gob.es/es/estadistica/temas/publicaciones/anuario-de-estadistica/2017/default.aspx
Metz B, Davidson OR, Bosch PR, Dave R, Meyer LA (eds.), 2007: Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK and NY. 851 pp. https://archive.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg3/ar4_wg3_full_report.pdf
Mkhabela MS, Madani A, Gordon R, Burton D, Cudmore D, Elrni A, Hart W, 2008. Gaseous and leaching nitrogen losses from no-tillage and conventional tillage systems following surface application of cattle manure. Soil Till Res 98: 187-199. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2007.12.005
Monaco S, Sacco D, Pelissetti S, Dinuccio E, Balsari P, Rostami M, Grignani C, 2012. Laboratory assessment of ammonia emission after soil application of treated and untreated manures. J Agric Sci 150: 65-73. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859611000487
Pacholski A, Cai G, Nieder R, Richter J, Fan X, Zhu Z, Roelcke M, 2006. Calibration of a simple method for determining ammonia volatilization in the field-comparative measurements in Henan Province, China. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 74: 259-273. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10705-006-9003-4
Powell JM, Jokela WE, Misselbrook TH, 2011. Dairy slurry application method impacts ammonia emission and nitrate leaching in no-till corn silage. J Environ Qual 40: 383-392. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2010.0082
Rochette P, Angers DA, Chantigny MH, MacDonald JD, Bissonnette N, Bertrand N, 2009. Ammonia volatilization following surface application of urea to tilled and no-till soils: a laboratory comparison. Soil Till Res 103: 310-315. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2008.10.028
Sadeghpour A, Hashemi M, Weis SA, Spargo JT, Mehrvarz S, Herbert SJ, 2015. Assessing tillage systems for reducing ammonia volatilization from spring-applied slurry manure. Commun Soil Sci Plan 46: 724-735. https://doi.org/10.1080/00103624.2015.1005223
Soil Survey Staff, 2014. Keys to soil taxonomy, 12th ed. USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service, U.S. Gov. Print. Office, Washington, DC, USA. https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/soils/survey/class/taxonomy/?cid=nrcs142p2_053580
Sommer SG, Génermont S, Cellier P, Hutchings NJ, Olensen J, Morvan T, 2003. Processes controlling ammonia emission from livestock slurry in the field. Eur J Agron 19: 465-486. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1161-0301(03)00037-6
Stevens RJ, Laughlin RJ, Kilpatrick DJ, 1989. Soil properties related to the dynamics of ammonia volatilization from urea applied to the surface of acidic soils. Fert Res 20: 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01055395
Thompson RB, Pain BF, Rees YJ, 1990. Ammonia volatilization from cattle slurry following surface application to grassland, II: Influence of application rate, wind speed, and applying slurry in narrow bands. Plant Soil 125: 119-28. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00010751
Yagüe MR, Valdez AS, Bosch-Serra ÀD, Ortiz C, Castellví F, 2019. A short-term study to compare field strategies for ammonia emission mitigation. J Environ Qual 48: 179-186. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2018.05.0218
© CSIC. Manuscripts published are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
SJAR is an Open Access Journal. All articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the license CC-by must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.